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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists have demonstrated analgesic activity across multiple preclinical pain models. AM1241 is an indole derivative that exhibits high affinity and selectivity for the CB2 binding site and broad spectrum analgesic activity in rodent models, but is not an antagonist of CB2 in vitro functional(More)
A series of bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazoles (BTPs) has been found to be a novel inhibitor of cytokine production. Identified initially as inhibitors of IL-2 synthesis, the BTPs have been optimized in this regard and even inhibit IL-2 production with a 10-fold enhancement over cyclosporine in an ex vivo assay. Additionally, the BTPs show inhibition of IL-4,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Activation of cannabinoid CB1 and/or CB2 receptors mediates analgesic effects across a broad spectrum of preclinical pain models. Selective activation of CB2 receptors may produce analgesia without the undesirable psychotropic side effects associated with modulation of CB1 receptors. To address selectivity in vivo, we describe(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) activates corpus cavernosum smooth muscle soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and increases the synthesis of cGMP that results in smooth muscle relaxation and ultimately, penile erection. To characterize sGC and define the potential synergy between NO and the allosteric activator YC-1 in corpus cavernosum, rat sGC was activated by either(More)
The immunosuppressive agent FK-506 has received much attention due to its efficacy and potency in the areas of transplant rejection and autoimmune disease. Calcineurin, a Ca(2+)-calmodulin activated phosphatase, was recently implicated in the immunosuppressive mechanism of FK-506. In our ongoing search for superior immunosuppressive agents, we have(More)
Comparing nephrotoxicity of numerous drug analogs is impractical with chronic in vivo models. We devised a new cisplatin potentiation assay (CISPA) that sensitively detects renal injury as a serum creatinine increase when only one dose of test compound is followed by cisplatin. Reference nephrotoxins known to act on various sites in kidney tubules,(More)
A series of novel pyrazole carboxamides is disclosed that demonstrate strong immunosuppressant activity in rodent and human mixed leukocyte response (MLR) assays (IC50 < 1 microM). The synthesis, biological activity, mode of action, and pharmacokinetic properties of this new lead series are discussed.
The present study was undertaken to assess and compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of toxins T-514 and T-544 of Buckthorn (Karvinskia humboldtiana) using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and keratinocytes. Cell cultures were exposed to 6, 12, 25 and 50 microM concentrations of the toxins for 2, 4, 6 and 24-h periods. Cytotoxicity was determined by release(More)
Male erectile dysfunction (MED) is defined as the “inability to achieve or maintain an (penile) erection adequate for sexual satisfaction” (National Institutes of Health Consensus Statement, 1993). Erectile dysfunction occurs in varying degrees in an estimated 20 to 30 million U.S. men and is associated with adverse effects on quality of life, particularly(More)
T lymphocytes play a critical part in inflammatory skin diseases but are targeted by available therapies that have only partial efficacy, significant side-effects, or both. Because psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic contact hypersensitivity are associated with T helper type 1 (Th1), T helper type 2 (Th2), or mixed Th1-Th2 cell subsets and cytokine(More)