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C4 photosynthesis is an adaptation derived from the more common C3 photosynthetic pathway that confers a higher productivity under warm temperature and low atmospheric CO2 concentration [1, 2]. C4 evolution has been seen as a consequence of past atmospheric CO2 decline, such as the abrupt CO2 fall 32-25 million years ago (Mya) [3-6]. This relationship has(More)
Phenotypic convergence is a widespread and well-recognized evolutionary phenomenon. However, the responsible molecular mechanisms remain often unknown mainly because the genes involved are not identified. A well-known example of physiological convergence is the C4 photosynthetic pathway, which evolved independently more than 45 times [1]. Here, we address(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Plastid NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) catalyses the conversion of oxaloacetate to malate. In C4 plants, it is involved in photosynthetic carbon assimilation. In Poaceae, one NADP-MDH gene has been identified in rice (C3; Erhartoideae) and maize (C4; Panicoideae), whereas two tandemly repeated genes have been identified in(More)
C(4) photosynthesis is a complex trait that confers higher productivity under warm and arid conditions. It has evolved more than 60 times via the co-option of genes present in C(3) ancestors followed by alteration of the patterns and levels of expression and adaptive changes in the coding sequences, but the evolutionary path to C(4) photosynthesis is still(More)
BACKGROUND Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA) polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach. In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) by(More)
In plants, an oligogene family encodes NADP-malic enzymes (NADP-me), which are responsible for various functions and exhibit different kinetics and expression patterns. In particular, a chloroplast isoform of NADP-me plays a key role in one of the three biochemical subtypes of C(4) photosynthesis, an adaptation to warm environments that evolved several(More)
Phylogenetic reconstructions are a major component of many studies in evolutionary biology, but their accuracy can be reduced under certain conditions. Recent studies showed that the convergent evolution of some phenotypes resulted from recurrent amino acid substitutions in genes belonging to distant lineages. It has been suggested that these convergent(More)
The present paper is dedicated to the use of enriched discretization schemes in the context of digital image correlation. The aim is to capture and evaluate strong or weak discontinuities of a displacement field directly from digital images. An analysis of different enrichment performances is provided. Two examples of strain localization illustrate the(More)
Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces.(More)
Humans have introduced plants and animals into new continents and islands with negative effects on local species. This has been the case of the olive that was introduced in Australia, New Zealand and Pacific islands where it became invasive. Two subspecies were introduced in Australia, and each successfully invaded a specific area: the African olive in New(More)