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The locked-in syndrome (LiS) was broken down on the basis of neurological symptoms in 12 patients. The criteria of classical LiS are total immobility except for vertical eye movements and blinking. If any other movements are present one should consider the condition as incomplete LiS. Total immobility, including all eye movements, combined with signs of(More)
In order to investigate the possible role of valproic acid therapy in the development of obesity, hyperinsulinism and polycystic ovaries (PCOs), we have studied metabolic parameters and ovarian morphology in epileptic women. A total of 105 women, who were treated for at least 2 years with valproate (n = 52) or carbamazepine monotherapy (n = 53), were(More)
PURPOSE Recent studies have claimed that language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can identify language lateralization in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and that fMRI-based findings are highly concordant with the conventional assessment procedure of speech dominance, the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT). METHODS To establish(More)
PURPOSE To compare the incidence and magnitude of weight gain associated with valproic acid (VPA) monotherapy in male and female epilepsy patients and to determine possible gender-specific differences in frequency of carbohydrate craving, body-composition, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. METHODS Epilepsy patients on VPA monotherapy were(More)
Medial temporal lobe (MTL) areas are well known to serve episodic memory functions; their contribution to semantic memory has been occasionally noticed but not studied in detail. In the present fMRI study, 35 right-handed and 35 left-handed healthy subjects performed a semantic decision paradigm during which subjects heard spoken concrete nouns designating(More)
A significant weight gain in the course of treatment of epilepsy with valproic acid (VPA) was described in several clinical studies. We recently demonstrated that postprandial insulin levels are increased in patients with VPA therapy. This possible modulation of pancreatic insulin secretion by VPA could be due to the structure of VPA as a fatty acid(More)
PURPOSE To analyse prognostic factors for long term seizure remission in patients with childhood (CAE) and juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE). STUDY DESIGN A retrospective analysis of a hospital based prevalence cohort. METHODS The cohort consisted of 163 patients (104 females, 59 males) treated at the Universitatsklinik fur Neurologie, Innsbruck between(More)
The diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) relies largely on electroencephalography (EEG) findings. The lack of a unified EEG terminology, and of evidence-based EEG criteria, leads to varying criteria for and ability to diagnose NCSE. We propose a unified terminology and classification system for NCSE, using, as a template, the Standardised(More)
Several involuntary movements were observed in patients who were totally immobile except for vertical gaze due to bilateral pyramidal transverse lesion at the pontine or midbrain level. In those conscious locked-in patients extensor spasms and flexor spasms could be elicited by nonspecific stimulation. Mimic pain reactions, pathological crying, and(More)