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In the early 1970s, a human influenza A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)-like virus colonized the European swine population. Analyses of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses isolated in The Netherlands and Belgium revealed that in the early 1990s, antigenic drift had occurred, away from A/Port Chalmers/1/73, the strain commonly used in influenza vaccines for pigs.(More)
Pandemic strains of influenza A virus arise by genetic reassortment between avian and human viruses. To examine the possibility that pigs serve as "mixing vessels" for such reassortment events (Scholtissek et al., Virology 147, 287-294, 1985), we phylogenetically analyzed the internal protein genes of classic H1N1, avian-like H1N1, and human-like H3N2(More)
The mechanisms of perpetuation of influenza A viruses in aquatic birds, their main reservoir in nature, have not yet been completely clarified. One hypothesis is that they continue to circulate in waterfowl throughout the year, even though virus isolations during the winter months are rare. We analyzed influenza virus circulation in wild ducks in Italy(More)
To investigate the possible mechanism of maintenance of old human influenza A (H3N2) viruses in pigs, the haemagglutinins (HAs) of seven isolates from swine were studied by analysis of nucleotide and deduced primary amino acid sequences, as well as reactivity of the HA molecule to chicken antisera and monoclonal antibodies. The swine HAs were closely(More)
Three subtypes of influenza A viruses, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2, co-evolve in pigs in Europe. H1N2 viruses isolated from pigs in France and Italy since 1997 were closely related to the H1N2 viruses which emerged in the UK in 1994. In particular, the close relationship of the neuraminidases (NAs) of these viruses to the NA of a previous UK H3N2 swine virus(More)
Two epidemics of avian influenza due to H5 and H7 highly pathogenic viruses occurred in poultry in Italy in 1997/98 and 1999/2000, respectively. The circulation of these serotypes in wild aquatic birds was investigated examining 638 cloacal swabs and 621 sera collected from 150 gulls, 162 coots, and 326 ducks trapped in Italian wetlands from 1998 to 2000.(More)
We report the results of a 6-year serological and virological monitoring performed in ducks and coots in Italy, in order to assess the degree of influenza A virus circulation in these birds during wintering. A total of 1039 sera collected from 1992 to 1998 was screened by a double antibody sandwich blocking ELISA (NP-ELISA): seroprevalence of antibodies to(More)
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates and the trend in resistance of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in Italy from 1994 to 2009. A total of 992 A. pleuropneumoniae isolates were tested for their susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobial agents in a disk diffusion method. Resistance to 7(More)
A field isolate of Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus was inoculated intravenously into 8 pigs. Four animals died at post inoculation day (PID) 2, the remaining being sacrificed at PID 5, 7, 11 and 15. Two control, in-contact pigs were sacrificed at PID 19. Virus was isolated from leucocytes and nasal swabs until PID 4, from rectal swabs until PID 2 and, in(More)
Influenza A virus isolation is undertaken routinely in embryonated chicken eggs, but to improve virus detection various cell lines can be used. The CACO-2 cell line was compared to the MDCK cell line and embryonated chicken eggs for the isolation of H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 swine influenza A virus subtypes from clinical specimens. From 2006 to 2008, 104 influenza A(More)