We have used cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified specimens to study microtubules assembled both from three cycle purified tubulin (3 x-tubulin) and in cell free extracts of Xenopus eggs. In vitro assembled 3x-tubulin samples have a majority of microtubules with 14 protofilaments whereas in cell extracts most microtubules have 13 protofilaments.… (More)
Subunit structure in the walls of sectioned microtubules was first noted by Ledbetter and Porter (6), who clearly showed that certain microtubules of plant meristematic cells have 13 wall protofilaments when seen in cross section. Earlier, protofilaments of microtubular elements had been described in negatively stained material, although exact counts of… (More)
Tubulin from bovine brain was polymerized in vitro using a variety of assembly conditions. Many of the formed microtubules were shown to contain 14 wall protofilaments. The number of microtubules containing 14 protofilaments increased with consecutive repetitions of cold-dissociation followed by reassembly in vitro.
The development of a low-cost motion capture based landmine detection training system is presented in this paper. Two Nintendo Wii Remotes (Wiimotes) are used to form a stereo vision system to obtain the position and orientation of the simulated physical landmine detector. The position data is used to compute the distance between the detector and a virtual… (More)