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Management, nutrition, production, and genetics are the main reasons for the decline in fertility in the modern dairy cow. Selection for the single trait of milk production with little consideration for traits associated with reproduction in the modern dairy cow has produced an antagonistic relationship between milk yield and reproductive performance. The(More)
In mature male sheep, the level of nutrition acutely influences the secretion of reproductive hormones. The mechanism involved is not fully understood but findings in humans and laboratory rodents would suggest a major role for leptin that is secreted from adipose tissue and then travels via the circulation to the central nervous system. Before we can begin(More)
Male-induced ovulation in sheep and goats (the 'male effect'), documented during the period 1940-1960, has long been shrouded in preconceptions concerning how, when and why it worked. These preconceptions became dogmas but recent research is challenging them so, in this review, we have re-visited some major physiological (breed seasonality; characteristics(More)
Orexins exert their effects through two specific receptors (OX1R and OX2R) that have been found mainly in the brain and also in peripheral tissues of rats and humans. Here, we demonstrate expression of mRNA encoding for ovine OX1R and OX2R in central and peripheral tissues of sheep. Gene expression for orexin receptors in the hypothalamus and the preoptic(More)
Continuous low-dose administration of a GnRH analogue postpones oestrus in bitches and suppresses reproductive function in dogs. A new drug delivery formulation that could enhance the practicality of this approach for the control of reproduction has been developed. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this method of delivery could, by(More)
In the present study, we tested the effect of treatment with a slow-release implant containing the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist Deslorelin(TM) (Peptech Animal Health Australia, North Ryde, NSW, Australia) on pituitary and testicular function in mature male dogs. Four dogs were treated with Deslorelin (6-mg implant) and four were used as controls(More)
During early lactation, dairy cattle are in negative energy balance and the delay to first post-partum ovulation depends on the time taken to recover from this situation. Lactating cows rely heavily on body fat to meet their requirements, leading to the suggestion that leptin, a hormone secreted mainly by adipocytes, is acting as a metabolic signal to sites(More)
The induction of synchronous ovulatory activity in anovulatory sheep and goats after the introduction of males, the 'male effect', has probably been used to advantage since these species were domesticated and the underlying physiological and behavioural mechanisms have been progressively elucidated over the past 50 years. Less well understood is the(More)
Animals live in environments that are both complex and continually changing, so they have to respond to short- and long-term variations in a wide range of factors, such as photoperiod, nutrition and sociosexual signals. Before they were domesticated, animals developed reproductive strategies that coped with these changes and often took advantage of them.(More)
The paper presents an update of our 1993 model of ovarian follicular development in ruminants, based on knowledge gained from the past 15 years of research. The model addresses the sequence of events from follicular formation in fetal life, through the successive waves of follicular growth and atresia, culminating with the emergence of ovulatory follicles(More)