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In many songbird species, females prefer males that sing a larger repertoire of syllables. Males with more elaborate songs have a larger high vocal centre (HVC) nucleus, the highest structure in the song production pathway. HVC size is thus a potential target of sexual selection. Here we provide evidence that the size of the HVC and other song production(More)
Blood vessels identified by laminin staining were studied in uninjured spinal cord and at 2, 4, 7, and 14 days following a moderate contusion (weight drop) injury. At 2 days after injury most blood vessels had been destroyed in the lesion epicenter; neurons and astrocytes were also absent, and few ED1+ cells were seen infiltrating the lesion center. By 4(More)
Contusion of the spinal cord causes an immediate local loss of neurons and disruption of vasculature; additional loss continues thereafter. To explore the possibility of a causal link between delayed endothelial cell (EC) death and secondary neural cell loss, we evaluated neural and endothelial cell survival, and measured inflammatory cell infiltration, at(More)
Methods that facilitate the accurate counting of specific neural cell types would be of substantial value in evaluating the efficacy of treatments applied to spinal cord injury. This report describes reliable procedures for identification of neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, endothelial cells and inflammatory cells (neutrophils and activated(More)
Motoneurons die in diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and after spinal cord trauma, inducing muscle denervation. We tested whether transplantation of embryonic cells with neurotrophic factors into peripheral nerve of adult rats improves muscle reinnervation and motor unit function more than cells alone. One week after sciatic nerve section,(More)
Motoneuron death leads to muscle denervation and atrophy. Transplantation of embryonic neurons into peripheral nerves results in reinnervation and provides a strategy to rescue muscles from atrophy independent of neuron replacement in a damaged or diseased spinal cord. But the count of regenerating axons always exceeds the number of motor units in this(More)
Reinnervation is needed to rescue muscle when motoneurons die in disease or injury. Embryonic ventral spinal cord cells transplanted into peripheral nerve reinnervate muscle and reduce atrophy, but low motoneuron survival may limit motor unit formation. We tested whether transplantation of a purified population of embryonic motoneurons into peripheral nerve(More)
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