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Enterococci are organisms with a remarkable ability to adapt to the environment and acquire antibiotic resistance determinants. The evolution of antimicrobial resistance in these organisms poses enormous challenges for clinicians when faced with patients affected with severe infections. The increased prevalence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant(More)
BACKGROUND Methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial and community-associated (CA) pathogen. Recently, a variant of the MRSA USA300 clone emerged and disseminated in South America, causing important clinical problems. METHODS S. aureus isolates were prospectively collected (2006-2008) from 32 tertiary hospitals in(More)
The transition period of dairy cows is characterized by dramatic changes in metabolism and immune cell function that contributes to increased susceptibility to several economically important diseases. Monocyte and macrophage populations increase in blood and tissues of cows during the transition period and have enhanced inflammatory responses that may(More)
Mastitis is broadly defined as the inflammation of the mammary gland; however, the concept of mastitis is customized to address its social and clinical impact in the case of humans and the health, welfare, and economic consequences for other mammals. There are many microbial, host, and environmental factors that influence the development of mastitis. Some(More)
The periparturient period of dairy cows is characterized by intense lipid mobilization from adipose tissue leading to increased plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). High NEFA are a predisposing factor for inflammatory based diseases. A major component of these diseases is uncontrolled macrophage/monocyte inflammatory responses. Changes(More)
The transition period of dairy cattle is characterized by dramatic changes in metabolism and host defense mechanisms that are associated with increased disease. Intense lipid mobilization from tissue stores is an important metabolic adaptation during the transition period that results in significant release of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) into the(More)
Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of disease during the periparturient period. Increased health disorders have been associated with alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Many different aspects of the bovine immune system change during the periparturient period, but uncontrolled inflammation is a dominant factor in several(More)
Brown adipocytes (BA) generate heat in response to sympathetic activation and are the main site of nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals. Although most BA are located in classic brown adipose tissue depots, BA are also abundant in the inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) before weaning. The number of BA is correlated with the density of sympathetic(More)
An unusual increase in infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus gallinarum (VREG) was identified in May 2004, in a Colombian tertiary care teaching hospital. A case-control study was subsequently designed to identify risk factors associated with the development of infections due to these organisms. All VREG isolates were subjected to(More)
Intense lipid mobilization during the transition period in dairy cows is associated with increased disease susceptibility. The potential impact of altered plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and composition on host inflammatory responses that may contribute to disease incidence and severity are not known. The objective of this study was(More)