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OBJECTIVES To review conjectured modes of action of migraine triggers and to present a new hypothesis about them. BACKGROUND Migraine attacks are initiated in many migraineurs by a variety of "triggers," although in some patients no external trigger can be identified. Many triggers provoke attacks with such a short latency that only some kind of neural(More)
The anatomy of the vertebral nerve was investigated in humans and in monkeys. The effect of stimulation of the vertebral nerve and the cervical sympathetic trunk in the monkey was studied. The vertebral nerves in man and monkey represent a series of deep grey rami communicantes which form intersegmental neural arcades around the vertebral artery between C7(More)
The effect of cortical spreading depression, a proposed initiating event for migraine pain, on cortical blood flow (laser Doppler method) and on the spontaneous firing rate and stimulus-evoked responses of trigemino-cervical neurons with craniovascular input was studied in 17 neurons in 8 cats anesthetized with chloralose. Cortical spreading depression,(More)
This report examines the effect of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor antagonist SB-705498 on neurotransmission and inflammation-induced sensitisation in the trigeminovascular sensory system. A single-neuron electrophysiological animal model for neurovascular head pain was used to evaluate dural and facial noxious inputs and the effects(More)
A method is described for fabrication of 7-barrelled microiontophoresis electrodes with a center barrel of platinum-coated tungsten. The electrodes require a minimum of expensive apparatus and can be fabricated in an hour or two. The electrodes have low recording impedance (typically 100 k omega and low resistance iontophoresis barrels (typically 20-50 M(More)
Changes in cortical blood flow and cerebrovascular activity occurring during and after cortical spreading depression (CSD) were studied in alpha-chloralose-urethan-anesthetized cats. CSD was induced by superficial cortical pinprick, and laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBFLD). CSD resulted in a wave of cortical(More)
AIM To use an animal model to test whether migraine pain arises peripherally or centrally. METHODS We monitored the spontaneous and evoked activity of second-order trigeminovascular neurons in rats to test whether traffic increased following a potential migraine trigger (cortical spreading depression, CSD) and by what mechanism any such change was(More)
Cortical spreading depression (SD) has not been shown in the human neocortex by direct cortical recordings. However, animal studies suggest that cortical injury, such as that occurring during neurosurgical procedures, should result in the initiation of SD. It is possible that inhibition of SD by volatile anesthetic agents may partially explain the failure(More)
We describe a device which allows the mechanical sensitivity of trigeminovascular sensory neurons to be monitored over extended time periods. The device can be used to stimulate either the skin or dura mater and consists of a solenoid-driven plunger to which are fixed interchangeable von Frey hairs. The solenoid can be attached to a stereotaxic carrier and(More)