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The fundamental design choices in an evolutionary algorithm are its representation of candidate solutions and the operators that will act on that representation. We propose representing spanning trees in evolutionary algorithms for network design problems directly as sets of their edges, and we describe initialization, recombination, and mutation operators… (More)

Given a connected, weighted, undirected graph <i>G</i> and a bound <i>D</i>, the bounded-diameter minimum spanning tree problem seeks a spanning tree on <i>G</i> of lowest weight in which no path between two vertices contains more than <i>D</i> edges. This problem is NP-hard for 4 < <i>D</i> < <i>n</i> - 1, where n is the number of vertices in… (More)

Research in metaheuristics for combinatorial optimization problems has lately experienced a noteworthy shift towards the hybridization of metaheuristics with other techniques for optimization. At the same time, the focus of research has changed from being rather algorithm-oriented to being more problem-oriented. Nowadays the focus is on solving the problem… (More)

In this survey we discuss different state-of-the-art approaches of combining exact algorithms and metaheuristics to solve combinatorial optimization problems. Some of these hybrids mainly aim at providing optimal solutions in shorter time, while others primarily focus on getting better heuristic solutions. The two main categories in which we divide the… (More)

We consider the problem of finding two-dimensional cutting patterns for glass sheets in order to produce rectangular elements requested by customers. The number of needed sheets, and therefore the waste, is to be minimized. The cutting facility requires three-staged guil-lotineable cutting patterns, and in addition, a plan for loading produced elements on… (More)

Manifold possibilities of hybridizing individual metaheuris-tics with each other and/or with algorithms from other fields exist. A large number of publications documents the benefits and great success of such hybrids. This article overviews several popular hybridization approaches and classifies them based on various characteristics. In particular with… (More)

In this work we present a new approach to tackle the problem of Post Enrolment Course Timetabling as specified for the International Timetabling Competition 2007 (ITC2007), competition track 2. The heuristic procedure is based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) where artificial ants successively construct solutions based on pheromones (stig-mergy) and local… (More)

This work deals with the application of a variable neighborhood search (VNS) to the capacitated location-routing problem (LRP) as well as to the more general periodic LRP (PLRP). For this, previous successful VNS algorithms for related problems are considered and accordingly adapted as well as extended. The VNS is subsequently combined with three very large… (More)

In this work we extend a VNS for the periodic vehicle routing problem with time windows (PVRPTW) to a multiple VNS (mVNS) where several VNS instances are applied cooperatively in an intertwined way. The mVNS adaptively allocates VNS instances to promising areas of the search space. Further, an intertwined collaborative cooperation with a generic ILP solver… (More)