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Defensins, antimicrobial peptides of the innate immune system, protect human mucosal epithelia and skin against microbial infections and are produced in large amounts by neutrophils. The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is insensitive to defensins by virtue of an unknown resistance mechanism. We describe a novel staphylococcal gene, mprF, which(More)
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are regulatory enzymes involved in the modulation of seven-transmembrane-helix receptors. In order to develop specific inhibitors for these kinases, we synthesized and investigated peptide inhibitors derived from the sequence of the first intracellular loop of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. Introduction of changes(More)
The crystal structures of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules contain a groove occupied by heterogeneous material thought to represent peptides central to immune recognition, although until now relatively little characterization of the peptides has been possible. Exact information about the contents of MHC grooves is now provided. Moreover,(More)
Isozyme-specific antibodies were raised against peptides from the low-homology regions of the sequences of rat glycogen phosphorylase BB and MM isozymes by immunization of rabbits and guinea pigs. Immunocytochemical double-labelling experiments on frozen sections of rat nervous tissues were performed to investigate the isozyme localization pattern.(More)
CD4+ class II-restricted T cells specific for self antigens are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of most human autoimmune diseases and molecular mimicry between foreign and self ligands has been implicated as a possible mechanism for their activation. In this report we introduce combinatorial peptide libraries as a powerful tool to identify(More)
Virus-infected cells can be eliminated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which recognize virus-derived peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules on the cell surface. Until now, this notion has relied on overwhelming but indirect evidence, as the existence of naturally processed viral peptides has not been previously(More)
The haemagglutinin protein (H) of measles virus (MV) binds to susceptible cells and collaborates with the fusion protein (F) to mediate fusion of the virus with the cell membrane. Binding and fusion activity of the virus can be monitored by haemagglutination and haemolysis, respectively, of monkey erythrocytes. Most monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with(More)
Macrophages are typically stimulated by components of microbial cell walls. Surprisingly, cell wall-less mycoplasmas can also very efficiently stimulate macrophages. We showed recently that mycoplasma-derived lipopeptides constitute the active principle. We have now isolated a clone of Mycoplasma fermentans expressing mainly one macrophage-stimulating(More)
Müller cells, the radially oriented dominant macroglial cells of the retina, are known to contain abundant glycogen as well as the key enzyme for its degradation, glycogen phosphorylase (GP), but the expressed isozyme pattern is unknown. To elucidate the isoform expression pattern, specific antisera directed against the brain (BB) and muscle (MM) isoforms(More)
The purine nucleotide cycle enzyme AMP deaminase (AMPD) catalyzes the irreversible hydrolytic deamination of AMP. The physiological function of the purine nucleotide cycle in the brain is unknown. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemical studies were performed to identify the regional and cellular expression of AMPD in rat brain with the goal of(More)