Günter Schneider

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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) catalyze extracellular matrix degradation. Control of their activity is a promising target for therapy of diseases characterized by abnormal connective tissue turnover. MMPs are expressed as latent proenzymes that are activated by proteolytic cleavage that triggers a conformational change in the propeptide (cysteine switch).(More)
Hepatobiliary contrast agents with uptake into hepatocytes followed by variable biliary excretion represent a unique class of cell-specific MR contrast agents. Two hepatobiliary contrast agents, mangafodipir trisodium and gadobenate dimeglumine, are already clinically approved. A third hepatobiliary contrast agent, Gd-EOB-DTPA, is under consideration. The(More)
The crystal structure of transketolase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been refined to a crystallographic residual of 15.7% at 2.0 A resolution using the program package X-PLOR. The refined model of the transketolase homodimer, corresponding to 1356 amino acid residues in the asymmetric unit, consists of 10,396 protein atoms, 1040 solvent molecules, 52(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Early metastasis is a hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and responsible for >90% of pancreatic cancer death. Because little is known about the biology and genetics of the metastatic process, we desired to elucidate molecular pathways mediating pancreatic cancer metastasis in vivo by an unbiased forward genetic approach. (More)
Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases introduce double bonds at specific positions in fatty acids of defined chain lengths and are one of the major determinants of the monounsaturated fatty acid composition of vegetable oils. Mutagenesis studies were conducted to determine the structural basis for the substrate and double bond positional specificities(More)
The three-dimensional structure of recombinant homodimeric delta9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, the archetype of the soluble plant fatty acid desaturases that convert saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, has been determined by protein crystallographic methods to a resolution of 2.4 angstroms. The structure was solved by a combination of single(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost universally fatal. The annual number of deaths equals the number of newly diagnosed cases, despite maximal treatment. The overall 5-year survival rate of <5% has remained stubbornly unchanged over the last 30 years, despite tremendous efforts in preclinical and clinical science. There is unquestionably an(More)
The crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transketolase, a thiamine diphosphate dependent enzyme, has been determined to 2.5 A resolution. The enzyme is a dimer with the active sites located at the interface between the two identical subunits. The cofactor, vitamin B1 derived thiamine diphosphate, is bound at the interface between the two subunits.(More)
A gene encoding transketolase, TKL1, was cloned from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using oligonucleotide primers derived from protein sequence data. The TKL1 sequence predicts a 74-kDa polypeptide which is related to other transketolases. A sequence comparison revealed that the transketolases can be subdivided into three evolutionary branches.(More)
Serum estrone (E1) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) were noted to be 2-fold elevated in a group of morbidly obese men. Urinary E1 and E2 production rates were elevated in proportion to the degree of obesity, with values as high as 127 and 157 micrograms/day, respectively. Although serum testosterone (T) concentrations were reduced in obese men, averaging 348 +/-(More)