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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) catalyze extracellular matrix degradation. Control of their activity is a promising target for therapy of diseases characterized by abnormal connective tissue turnover. MMPs are expressed as latent proenzymes that are activated by proteolytic cleavage that triggers a conformational change in the propeptide (cysteine switch).(More)
The three-dimensional structure of human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.1 A resolution. The structure of the inhibitor consists of two domains. The N-terminal domain (residues 1-110) is folded into a beta-barrel, similar to the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold otherwise found in(More)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are the sixth most common malignant neoplasm and more than 50% of patients succumb to this disease. HNSCCs are characterized by therapy resistance, which relies on the overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins and on the aberrant regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). As inherent and(More)
We show that BRAF(V600E) initiates an alternative pathway to colorectal cancer (CRC), which progresses through a hyperplasia/adenoma/carcinoma sequence. This pathway underlies significant subsets of CRCs with distinctive pathomorphologic/genetic/epidemiologic/clinical characteristics. Genetic and functional analyses in mice revealed a series of(More)
The enteric nervous system contains excitatory and inhibitory neurons, which control contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle cells as well as gastrointestinal motor activity. Little is known about the exact cellular mechanisms of neuronal signal transduction to smooth muscle cells in the gut. Here we generate a c-Kit(CreERT2) knock-in allele to target a(More)
2621 NF-B plays an important role in the regulation of diverse biological processes such as development , immune and inflammatory responses, and Through its ubiquitous appearance , NF-B is involved in regulation of a wide range of genes, such as genes encoding cyto-kines, adhesion molecules, cytokine receptors, immunoregulatory molecules, and(More)
The production of sufficient quantities of protein is an essential prelude to a structure determination, but for many viral and human proteins this cannot be achieved using prokaryotic expression systems. Groups in the Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) consortium have developed and implemented high-throughput (HTP) methodologies for cloning,(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most common causes of cancer related death. Despite the advances in understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, pancreatic cancer remains a major unsolved health problem. Overall, the 5-year survival rate is less than 5% demonstrating the insufficiency of current therapies. Most cytotoxic therapies(More)