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An EEG-based brain-computer system can be used to control external devices such as computers, wheelchairs or Virtual Environments. One of the most important applications is a spelling device to aid severely disabled individuals with communication, for example people disabled by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). P300-based BCI systems are optimal for(More)
Spontaneous EEG can display spatio-temporal patterns of desynchronized or synchronized alpha band activity. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) of rhythms within alpha and lower beta bands is characteristic of activated cortical areas ready to process information or to prepare a movement, while event-related synchronization (ERS) in the same frequency(More)
Ninety-nine healthy people participated in a brain-computer interface (BCI) field study conducted at an exposition held in Graz, Austria. Each subject spent 20-30 min on a two-session BCI investigation. The first session consisted of 40 trials conducted without feedback. Then, a subject-specific classifier was set up to provide the subject with feedback,(More)
Most brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) rely on one of three types of signals in the electroencephalogram (EEG): P300s, steady-state visually evoked potentials, and event-related desynchronization. EEG is typically recorded non-invasively with electrodes mounted on the human scalp using conductive electrode gel for optimal impedance and data quality. The use(More)
An experiment was conducted in a Cave-like environment to explore the relationship between physiological responses and each of breaks in presence, and utterances by virtual characters towards the participants. Twenty people explored a virtual environment (VE) that depicted a virtual bar scenario. The experiment was divided into a training and an(More)
An electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was connected with a Virtual Reality system in order to control a smart home application. Therefore special control masks were developed which allowed using the P300 component of the EEG as input signal for the BCI system. Control commands for switching TV channels, for opening and closing(More)
Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are communication systems that allow people to send messages or commands without movement. BCIs rely on different types of signals in the electroencephalogram (EEG), typically P300s, steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP), or event-related desynchronization. Early BCI systems were often evaluated with a selected(More)
In the Eastern Alps, the Dachstein massif with a height of almost 3000 m is an ideal location for investigating the effects of changes in altitude on the human body. Within a few minutes, a cable car facilitates an ascent from 1702 to 2700 m above sea level, where the partial pressure of oxygen is about 550 mmHg (as compared to 760 mmHg at sea level). In(More)
In order to describe how high altitude affects the body during a one night stay at 4000m experiments were performed in a hypobaric chamber and compared to a study on Dachstein (mountain in Austria, 2700m). Ten subjects had to perform a reaction time task at different altitudes. The EEG and ECG were recorded simultaneously. Additionally, the oxygen(More)