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Changes in plasma nitrite concentration in the human forearm circulation have recently been shown to reflect acute changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-activity. Whether basal plasma nitrite is a general marker of constitutive NOS-activity in vivo is yet unclear. Due to the rapid metabolism of nitrite in blood and the difficulties in its(More)
In the summer of 2006, a bluetongue epidemic started in the border area of Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany, spread within 2 years over large areas of Western and Central Europe, and caused substantial losses in farm ruminants. Especially sheep and cattle were severely affected, leading to a case-fatality ratio of nearly 40% in sheep (Conraths et al.,(More)
To identify the vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in Germany, we monitored Culicoides spp. biting midges during April 2007-May 2008. Molecular characterization of batches of midges that tested positive for BTV suggests C. obsoletus sensu stricto as a relevant vector of bluetongue disease in central Europe.
Using interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) mice, previous studies revealed a pathological immune response after infection with Trypanosoma cruzi that is associated with CD4(+) T cells and overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study we further investigate the pathology and potential mediators for the mortality in infected animals. T.(More)
The cDNAs encoding an intestinal defensin (def1) and lysozyme (lys1) of the reduviid bug Triatoma brasiliensis have been amplified by PCR using specific oligonucleotide primers and 5'- and 3'-RACE, cloned and sequenced. The 576 bp clone has an open reading frame of 282 bp and encodes a pre-prodefensin with 94 amino acid residues, containing a putative(More)
We have isolated and characterised a Triatoma infestans cDNA encoding a lysozyme. A 174-bp fragment was amplified by PCR using degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers derived from the known amino acid sequences of lysozyme from other insects. This PCR fragment was used to screen a cDNA gut library of T. infestans. A clone containing the 3'-end of the(More)
The time courses of poliovirus plus- and minus-strand RNA synthesis in infected HEp-2 cells were monitored separately, using a quantitative RNase assay. In parallel, viral RNA and proteins were located in situ by confocal microscopy within cells fixed by a protocol determined to retain their native size and shape. Plus- and minus-strand RNAs were visualized(More)
Studies on the effects of decapitation, head transplantation, azadirachtin, and ecdysone therapy on the ultrastructural organization of the midgut of Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, show a distinct effect on the organization of the epithelial cells. When insects are decapitated or treated with azadirachtin, the(More)
The outbreak of bluetongue disease in Central Europe necessitates new approaches in the identification of vectors to follow-up changes of populations of species and not of complexes. Since females of species of the complex of Culicoides obsoletus are difficult to be identified according to morphological criteria, we applied a polymerase chain reaction(More)
The bloodsucking hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus is a vector of Chagas' disease, which affects 7-8 million people today in Latin America. In contrast to other hematophagous insects, the triatomine gut is compartmentalized into three segments that perform different functions during blood digestion. Here we report analysis of transcriptomes for each of the(More)