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In a number of studies the context provided by a real-world scene has been claimed to have a mandatory, perceptual effect on the identification of individual objects in such a scene. This claim has provided a basis for challenging widely accepted data-driven models of visual perception in order to advocate alternative models with an outspoken top-down(More)
We tested theories of eye movement control in reading by looking at parafoveal processing. According to attention-processing theories, attention shifts towards word n + 1 only when processing of the fixated word n is finished, so that attended parafoveal processing does not start until the programming of the saccade programming to word n + 1 is initiated(More)
In two experiments, spatial stimulus-response compatibility effects in situations where the stimulus could appear in eight different locations were investigated. The locations were obtained as a result of orthogonal manipulation of hemispace, visual hemifield within hemispace, and relative position within hemifield. In the first experiment, only relative(More)
This study tested and refined a framework that proposes a mechanism for retrieving alternative causes and disabling conditions (Cummins, 1995) during reasoning. Experiment 1 examined the relation between different factors affecting retrieval. The test revealed high correlations between the number of possible alternative causes or disabling conditions and(More)
In the present experiment, participants were exploring line drawings of scenes in the context of an object-decision task, while eye-contingent display changes manipulated the appearance of the foveal part of the image. Foveal information was replaced by an ovoid noise mask for 83 ms, after a preset delay of 15, 35, 60, or 85 ms following the onset of(More)
After viewing an object in an implied rotation, subjects' short-term visual memory for the object's position is distorted in the direction of rotation. Previous accounts of this representational momentum effect have emphasized the analogy to physical momentum. This study provides a more general perspective: Position memory is influenced by anticipatory(More)
We examined the effects of multiple axes and skewing on the detectability of symmetry in tachistoscopically presented (100-msec) dot patterns to test the role of normal grouping processes based on higher order regularities in element positions. In addition to the first-order regularities of orientational uniformity and midpoint collinearity (Jenkins, 1983),(More)
Objects likely to appear in a given real-world scene are frequently found to be easier to recognize. Two different sources of contextual information have been proposed as the basis for this effect: global scene background and individual companion objects. The present paper examines the relative importance of these two elements in explaining the(More)
Aging is presumed to disrupt self-initiated processing, and a time-based prospective memory task (i.e., action to be performed at a particular time) entails more self-initiated activities than an event-based prospective memory task (i.e., action to be performed to a critical event). Accordingly, older participants are predicted to be particularly bad in a(More)