Learn More
Mammalian cells were observed to die under conditions in which nutrients were depleted and, simultaneously, macroautophagy was inhibited either genetically (by a small interfering RNA targeting Atg5, Atg6/Beclin 1-1, Atg10, or Atg12) or pharmacologically (by 3-methyladenine, hydroxychloroquine, bafilomycin A1, or monensin). Cell death occurred through(More)
The anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) bind and inhibit Beclin-1, an essential mediator of autophagy. Here, we demonstrate that this interaction involves a BH3 domain within Beclin-1 (residues 114-123). The physical interaction between Beclin-1 and Bcl-X(L) is lost when the BH3 domain of Beclin-1 or the BH3 receptor domain of Bcl-X(L) is mutated.(More)
Autophagic cell death is morphologically characterized by an accumulation of autophagic vacuoles. Here, we show that inactivation of LAMP2 by RNA interference or by homologous recombination leads to autophagic vacuolization in nutrient-depleted cells. Cells that lack LAMP2 expression showed an enhanced accumulation of vacuoles carrying the marker LC3, yet a(More)
Multiple cellular stressors, including activation of the tumour suppressor p53, can stimulate autophagy. Here we show that deletion, depletion or inhibition of p53 can induce autophagy in human, mouse and nematode cells subjected to knockout, knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of p53. Enhanced autophagy improved the survival of p53-deficient cancer(More)
Systemic anticancer chemotherapy is immunosuppressive and mostly induces nonimmunogenic tumor cell death. Here, we show that even in the absence of any adjuvant, tumor cells dying in response to anthracyclins can elicit an effective antitumor immune response that suppresses the growth of inoculated tumors or leads to the regression of established neoplasia.(More)
In most mammalian species, a key process of placenta development is the fusion of trophoblast cells into a highly specialized, multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast layer, through which most of the maternofetal exchanges take place. Little is known about this process, despite the recent identification of 2 pairs of envelope genes of retroviral origin,(More)
Two-dimensional neutral/neutral agarose gel electrophoresis is used extensively to localize replication origins. This method resolves DNA structures containing replication forks. It also detects X-shaped recombination intermediates in meiotic cells, in the form of a typical vertical spike. Intriguingly, such a spike of joint DNA molecules is often(More)
We analyzed the replication of two unlinked actin genes, ardB and ardC , which are abundantly transcribed in the naturally synchronous plasmodium of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum. Detection and size measurements of single-stranded nascent replication intermediates (RIs) demonstrate that these two genes are concomitantly replicated at the onset of the(More)
Profilin is a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein that inhibits actin polymerization. We cloned and sequenced the two profilin genes from the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum. The genes, proA and proP, each contain two introns. Primer extension experiments showed two possible transcription start sites in the profilin A gene and one start site in the(More)
Activation of NF-kappaB and autophagy are two processes involved in the regulation of cell death, but the possible cross-talk between these two signaling pathways is largely unknown. Here, we show that NF-kappaB activation mediates repression of autophagy in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-treated Ewing sarcoma cells. This repression is associated(More)