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OBJECTIVES The antimicrobials allowed and amounts sold in veterinary and human medicine in France were compared to see if the same antimicrobial drugs are used in veterinary and human medicine, and to the same extent. METHODS Registers of all approved antimicrobial commercial products, kept by the French Agency for Veterinary Medicinal Products (AFSSA(More)
Bacteria that are resistant to antimicrobials are widespread. This article reviews the distribution of resistant bacteria in farm environments. Humans, animals, and environmental sites are all reservoirs of bacterial communities that contain some bacteria that are susceptible to antimicrobials and others that are resistant. Farm ecosystems provide an(More)
Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in commensal, zoonotic and pathogenic bacteria from humans, animals and food is an essential source of information when formulating measures to improve food safety. International organisations (the World Health Organization, the World Organisation for Animal Health, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United(More)
Bacteria have a remarkable ability to adapt, evolve and survive by developing resistance to therapeutic compounds. This ability is also shared by other pathogenic agents such as viruses, fungi, and parasites. Even when focusing on bacterial resistance only, this phenomenon is quite complex to analyse due to the diversity of animal species, the diversity of(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify trends and patterns of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in nine European countries during 2005-09 in order to document the situation. METHODS Existing sales data, in tonnes of active ingredients, of veterinary antimicrobial agents by class were collected from nine European countries in a standardized manner for the years(More)
The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) TerrestrialAnimal Health Code considers the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine to comprise a series of practical measures and recommendations which confer benefits to animal and public health while preserving and maintaining the therapeutic efficacy of antimicrobials. This paper reviews(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe sales and sales patterns of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries for 2011. METHODS Data on the sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents from 25 EU member states and EEA countries for 2011 were collected at package level (name, formulation, strength, pack size, number of(More)
Since its introduction in the 1950s, colistin has been used mainly as a topical treatment in human medicine owing to its toxicity when given systemically. Sixty years later, colistin is being used as a last-resort drug to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae (e.g.,(More)
The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code recommends that programmes forthe monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms associated with aquatic animals be initiated by the appropriate authorities. This paper discusses the classes of bacteria to be studied in such programmes and the methods of(More)
The discovery of antibiotics represented a turning point in human history. However, by the late 1950s infections that were difficult to treat, involving resistant bacteria, were being reported. Nowadays, multiresistant strains have become a major concern for public and animal health. Antimicrobial resistance is a complex issue, linked to the ability of(More)