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Intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes (IELs) are likely to play a key role in host mucosal immunity and, unlike other T cells, have been proposed to differentiate from local precursors rather than from thymocytes. We show here that IELs expressing the alphabeta T cell receptor are derived from precursors that express RORgammat, an orphan nuclear hormone(More)
Lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells initiate the development of lymphoid tissues through the activation of local stromal cells in a process similar to inflammation. LTi cells express the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt, which also directs the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 in T cells. We show here that LTi cells are part of a(More)
Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 have been successfully used as cancer immunotherapy. We find that the antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade depend on distinct Bacteroides species. In mice and patients, T cell responses specific for B. thetaiotaomicron or B. fragilis were associated with the efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade. Tumors in antibiotic-treated or germ-free(More)
In the last two decades, the widespread application of genetic and genomic approaches has revealed a bacterial world astonishing in its ubiquity and diversity. This review examines how a growing knowledge of the vast range of animal-bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of(More)
The Id2 transcriptional repressor is essential for development of natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue-inducing (LTi) cells, and secondary lymphoid tissues. Id2 was proposed to regulate NK and LTi lineage specification from multipotent progenitors through suppression of E proteins. We report that NK cell progenitors are not reduced in the bone marrow(More)
Th cells producing IL-17 play a pro-inflammatory role at mucosal surfaces. Treg at the same sites dampen inflammation and prevent immunopathology. Th cells producing IL-17 (Th17) and Treg are thought to be distinct populations defined by expression of the transcription factors ROR-gammat and Foxp3, respectively. Here, we show that mouse CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg(More)
CD4(+) T-helper cells that selectively produce interleukin (IL)-17 (T(H)17), are critical for host defence and autoimmunity. Although crucial for T(H)17 cells in vivo, IL-23 has been thought to be incapable of driving initial differentiation. Rather, IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 have been proposed to be the factors responsible for initiating(More)
Intestinal homeostasis is critical for efficient energy extraction from food and protection from pathogens. Its disruption can lead to an array of severe illnesses with major impacts on public health, such as inflammatory bowel disease characterized by self-destructive intestinal immunity. However, the mechanisms regulating the equilibrium between the large(More)
The nuclear hormone receptor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)gammat is required for the development of lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer's patches (PPs), as these organs are absent in RORgammat-deficient mice. During fetal life, RORgammat is expressed exclusively in lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells, a cell type that localizes in developing LNs and(More)
The natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46 (encoded by Ncr1) was recently shown to identify a subset of noncytotoxic, Rag-independent gut lymphocytes that express the transcription factor Rorc, produce interleukin (IL)-22, and provide innate immune protection at the intestinal mucosa. Intestinal CD3(-)NKp46(+) cells are phenotypically heterogeneous, comprising(More)