Gérard Chaouat

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The enunciation of the T helper 1/T helper 2 (Th1/Th2) paradigm in pregnancy has represented a major step forward in our understanding of physiological and pathologic materno–foetal relationship. However, recent developments in studies of the implantation process and in the emergence of the uterine vascular bed and its control by natural killer cells and(More)
In this study, we examined the effect of injecting various cytokines. We report here that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, gamma-interferon and interleukin 2 (IL-2) can, in some circumstances, increase fetal resorption rates in abortion-prone (CBA/J x DBA/2) and non-abortion prone (CBA/J x BALB/c,C3H x DBA/2) matings: 1000 units TNF enhanced resorptions(More)
CBA x DBA/2 placentae are quantitatively or qualitatively deficient in their production of the anti-inflammatory Th2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 compared with the nonresorption-prone CBA x BALB/c mating combination. Wastage in this mating combination is accompanied by increased levels of local inflammatory cytokines. In addition, alloimmunization enhances(More)
Spontaneous resorption in the CBA x DBA/2 model is attributed to NK cells, macrophages, and Th1-type cytokines. In vivo depletion of NK cells by anti-asialoGM1 Ab or macrophage depletion by silicon dioxide treatment reduced abortion rates, which could no longer be boosted by injecting TNF-alpha (which activates NK cells) or IFN-gamma (which activates(More)
The restriction of cell-free HIV-1 infection has been demonstrated in placental trophoblast choriocarcinoma BeWo cells. We tried to determine the level of the viral replication cycle at which this restriction occurs. BeWo cells produce infectious viruses after transfection with HIV-1 plasmids, independently of viral tropism. CCR5 and CXCR4, but not the CD4(More)
Focussing attention on cytokines at the materno-foetal interface represents one of the major advances made in the field. This owes much to the visionary views of Tom Wegmann, and to the changes brought about in the field by immunotrophism and Th1/Th2 paradigms. We review these briefly and also point out some emerging problems.However, a certain number of(More)
BACKGROUND The cytokine/chemokine levels of individual follicular fluids (FFs) were measured to determine whether a biomarker could be linked to the developmental potential of the derived embryo. METHODS Fluid was collected from 132 individual FFs that were the source of oocytes subsequently fertilized and transferred. In each, a bead-based multiplex(More)
PROBLEM To determine if interleukin-16 (IL-16), IL-17, and IL-18 are present at the murine fetomaternal interface during pregnancy as a first step towards investigating their roles in fetomaternal relationship. METHODS Expression of IL-16, IL-17, and IL-18, was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the BALB/c x BALB/k (H2d x H2k), and the CBA/J x(More)
PROBLEM Prevention of spontaneous abortion by allogeneic mononuclear leukocyte immunotherapy has proven ineffective in the CBA x DBA/2 murine abortion model if the leukocytes are stored overnight before inoculation. The mechanism and generality of the phenomenon has not been elucidated. METHODS As prevention of recurrent abortion in the CBA x DBA/2 model(More)
Mother-to-child transmission can occur in utero, mainly intrapartum and postpartum in case of breastfeeding. In utero transmission is highly restricted and results in selection of viral variant from the mother to the child. We have developed an in vitro system that mimics the interaction between viruses, infected cells present in maternal blood, and the(More)