Gérard Brand

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The sex of individuals plays an important part in determining their olfactory abilities, with females generally being superior to males. The present review examines the way in which sex differences influence sensitivity, identification, familiarity, and recognition of odours. It also examines whether sex differences are more pronounced with some odours than(More)
Artificial ligaments are a useful tool in ligament reconstruction. Although the new generation of artificial ligaments shows encouraging clinical results, in contrast to earlier generations studies on the biological properties are lacking. Biopsies were taken from a ligament advancement reinforcement system (LARS) 6 months after implantation and(More)
For a long time, studies devoted to intranasal chemoreception have separately considered the different systems which coexist in the human nasal cavity, especially the olfactory and trigeminal systems. For the former, the findings have contributed to a better understanding of transduction, perception and the treatment of odors. For the latter, data have(More)
Currently available techniques used in neurosciences and particularly cerebral imaging are contributing to a better understanding of human perception and the treatment of sensorial information. In this field, the chemical senses (taste and smell) have received little attention when compared with the auditory, visual and tactile senses. Nevertheless, recent(More)
It is well known that most odorants stimulate both the olfactory system and the trigeminal system. However, the overlap between the brain processes involved in each of these sensorial perceptions is still poorly documented. This study aims to compare fMRI brain activations while smelling two odorants of a similar perceived intensity and pleasantness: phenyl(More)
Four cementless prosthetic hip implants of Ti-6Al-4V-alloy with and without longitudinal grooves and Al2O2 ceramic ball heads, with implant periods of 3, 4, 5, and 10 months, were sectioned and examined histologically in undecalcified thin ground sections. Especially on the medial and lateral sides of the prostheses, there was direct bone-to-metal contact(More)
The tendon and ligaments inserted into the perichondrium of the epiphyseal plate were examined in 152 autopsy specimens of tubular long bones. In the region of two areas where tendons were inserted (Ranvier's nodes), the normal medullary tissue is replaced by fibroblastic tissue. A retrospective radiological examination of 155 fibrous metaphyseal defects(More)
In the nose, the capacity to detect and react to volatile chemicals is mediated by two separate but interrelated sensory pathways, the olfactory and trigeminal systems. Because most chemosensory stimulants, at sufficient concentration, produce both olfactory and trigeminal sensations (i.e., stinging, burning or pungent), it is relevant to seek how these(More)
Synthetic 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT)--a component of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces--is frequently used to induce unconditioned fear in rodents. Surprisingly, direct comparison between TMT and natural fox feces odor is almost nonexistent. In this study, Experiment 1 compared the avoidance in relation to TMT concentration, natural fox feces, and gender(More)