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An active surveillance programme for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSES) in sheep and goats was implemented in France in 2002 at abattoirs and rendering plants. The analysis of the results of this programme highlighted three biases: a potentially non-random sampling scheme in both rendering plants and abattoirs, a heterogeneous geographical(More)
The agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may be infecting small ruminants, which could have serious implications for human health. To distinguish BSE from scrapie and to examine the molecular characteristics of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)), we used a specifically designed Western blot method to test isolates from 648(More)
In France, after the ban on meat and bone meal (MBM) in cattle feeding in June 1990, cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) have continued to be detected in bovines born after that ban (called BAB cases). A case-control study was therefore carried out to determine the way these cases were contaminated. A multivariate conditional model was built(More)
Between 1991 and mid 2000, the surveillance of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in France was based solely on clinical surveillance through a Mandatory Reporting System. Since 2000, the implementation of active surveillance programmes using rapid tests, as a complementary tool targeted at dead and slaughtered cattle has shown that part of the BSE(More)
A mandatory reporting system (MRS) was set up in France in December 1990 to detect animals showing clinical signs of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Since June 2000, four active surveillance programmes dedicated to fallen stock and slaughtered cattle have been implemented to reinforce the MRS. The clinical status of the cases detected through these(More)
Capture-recapture (CR) methods are used to study populations that are monitored with imperfect observation processes. They have recently been applied to the monitoring of animal diseases to evaluate the number of infected units that remain undetected by the surveillance system. This paper proposes three bayesian models to estimate the total number of(More)
The development of antimicrobial resistance has made it necessary to measure antimicrobial usage in animal production sectors. France is a major European producer of white veal calves, but few data were previously available for that sector, even though these young animals are particularly susceptible to infection and considered as a reservoir of(More)
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