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Induction of broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies is a high priority for AIDS vaccine development but one that has proven difficult to be achieved. While most immunogens generate antibodies that neutralize a subset of T-cell-line-adapted strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), none so far have generated a potent, broadly(More)
The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS) protein-based pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine, RTS,S, induces a high level of protection against experimental sporozoite challenge. The immune mechanisms that constitute protection are only partially understood, but are presumed to rely on Abs and T cell responses. In the present study we compared CS protein(More)
BACKGROUND RTS,S/AS02 is a pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine based on the circumsporozoite surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum fused to HBsAg, incorporating a new adjuvant (AS02). We did a randomised trial of the efficacy of RTS,S/AS02 against natural P. falciparum infection in semi-immune adult men in The Gambia. METHODS 306 men aged 18-45 years were(More)
Many human T-cell responses specific for epitopes in Plasmodium falciparum have been described, but none has yet been shown to be predictive of protection against natural malaria infection. Here we report a peptide-specific T-cell assay that is strongly associated with protection of humans in The Gambia, West Africa, from both malaria infection and disease.(More)
After initial successful evaluation of the circumsporozoite-based vaccine RTS,S/SBAS2, developed by SmithKline Beecham Biologicals with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, protective efficacy of several regimens against Plasmodium falciparum challenge was determined. A controlled phase 1/2a study evaluated 1 or 2 standard doses of RTS,S/SBAS2 in 2(More)
Recombinant protein subunit AIDS vaccines have been based predominantly on the virus envelope protein. Such vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody responses that can provide type-specific sterilizing immunity, but in most cases do not confer protection against divergent viruses. In this report we demonstrate that a multiantigen subunit protein vaccine was(More)
Preclinical studies of viral vector-based HIV-1 vaccine candidates have previously shown partial protection against neutralization-resistant virus challenges in rhesus monkeys. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector priming followed by purified envelope (Env) glycoprotein boosting. Rhesus monkeys primed(More)
Most antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 are highly somatically mutated in antibody clonal lineages that persist over time. Here, we describe the analysis of human antibodies induced during an HIV-1 vaccine trial (GSK PRO HIV-002) that used the clade B envelope (Env) gp120 of clone W6.1D (gp120(W6.1D)). Using dual-color antigen-specific sorting, we(More)
BACKGROUND RTS,S/AS02A, a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum vaccine based on the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) repeat and C-terminus regions, elicits strong humoral and Th1 cell-mediated immunity. In field studies, RTS,S/AS02A reduced malaria infection, clinical episodes, and disease severity. Heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens, optimally(More)