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In the Champagne vineyard, most of the areas treated in early 2000 with the newly approved herbicide flazasulfuron had vines with altered growth and yellow leaves throughout the growing season. In order to clarify the physiological perturbations caused on the non-target grapevine and their potential consequences, C nutrition of grape plants grown in(More)
Among the herbicides used in vineyards, the pre-emergence soil-applied flumioxazin (FMX) is a recently synthesized molecule that inhibits chlorophyll biosynthesis in weed species. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of FMX on non-target grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) plantlets grown in vitro. FMX treatment (from 1 to 100(More)
The impact of flumioxazin herbicide on in vitro-grown grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) was investigated. The herbicide treatments (1, 10 or 100 micro M flumioxazin in MM medium) had a negative impact on photosynthesis, as revealed by a reduction in foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, gas exchanges and alteration in plastid structure(More)
In Arabidopsis thaliana, two genes encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS; EC 2.3.2.15), AtPCS1 and AtPCS2, have been identified. Until now, only AtPCS1 was shown to play a role in response to Cd. To gain insight into the putative role of AtPCS2, three Cd concentrations (50, 100 and 200 μM) and long-term exposure (7 days) were tested on 1-week-old A. thaliana(More)
In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay)(More)
In order to evaluate the stress effects of flumioxazin (fmx) on grapevine, a non-target plant (Vitis vinifera L.), physiological parameters such as carbohydrate content, water status or nitrogenous metabolites were investigated on fruiting cuttings and plants grown in vineyard. In the leaves of cuttings, the soil-applied herbicide induced stress(More)
Studies related to phytoremediation by conifers are still at their beginning. Thus, we investigated the ability of a hybrid larch (Larix x eurolepis) to accumulate cadmium (Cd). One-month-old clonal plantlets grown in vitro were exposed for 1 week to a high Cd concentration (1.5 mM). No significant effect was observed on root and shoot biomass, root length,(More)
In this work, the capacity of the soil-applied herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) to trigger defence mechanisms was assessed using 6-week-old in vitro grown Vitis vinifera L. plantlets. Time-course studies demonstrated that the herbicide induced the expression of basic beta-1,3-glucanase (Vvglu), basic chitinase (Vvchit1b) and PR10 (VvPR10.3) genes encoding three(More)
To evaluate the impact of the herbicide flumioxazin (fmx) on nontarget grapevines, its effects were assessed on fruiting cuttings and field-grown plants. The stress caused by the herbicide differed according to the grapevine model. In cuttings, leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment levels as well as hexose contents decreased, whereas sucrose and(More)
Phytoextraction of Cd is a growing biotechnology although we currently know few Cd hyperaccumulators, i.e., plant species able to accumulate at least 0.1 mg Cd g(-1) dry weight in aerial organs. Owing their deep root system and high biomass, trees are more and more preferred to herbaceous species for phytoextraction. Assuming that conifers could be relevant(More)