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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by a progressive degeneration of motor neurons. The cause of sporadic ALS is not known, but 1-2% of all cases are familial and caused by mutations in the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene. Transgenic SOD1 mice serve as a transgenic mouse model for these cases. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor(More)
Progressive spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most prevalent hereditary lower motor neuron disease, is caused by mutations in the telomeric copy of the survival of motor neuron(SMN1) gene. Unlike other cells, lower motor neurons cannot tolerate low levels of smn protein. However, it is unclear as to the nature of the cell death involved. There is evidence(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that has various different functions in the nervous system and in non-neural tissues. Little is known about the effects of PACAP in endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PACAP on endothelial cell survival and apoptotic(More)
[1] This paper describes the coupling of BATS-R-US (Block Adaptive Tree Solar-wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme), a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code representing the Earth’s global magnetosphere and its coupling to the ionosphere and solar wind, and the Rice Convection Model (RCM), which represents the inner magnetosphere and its coupling to the ionosphere. The(More)
We studied spinal analgesic and antiallodynic effects of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 administered i.t. in comparison with Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or morphine, during acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rats chronically implanted with intrathecal cannulas. Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 (2.5, 5, 10 microg i.t.) increased the(More)
Receptor binding properties of the naturally occurring opioid heptapeptide MERF were studied in rat brain membrane preparations using tritium-labeled derivative of the peptide with 40 Ci/mmol specific radioactivity. Binding assays were performed in the presence of broad-spectrum peptidase inhibitors at 0 degree C. Under these conditions, the equilibrium(More)
Inhibitory actions of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been described on cellular/vascular inflammatory components, but there are few data concerning its role in neurogenic inflammation. In this study we measured PACAP-like immunoreactivity with radioimmunoassay in the rat plasma and showed a two-fold elevation in response to(More)
[1] In late October and early November 2003 a series of some of the most powerful solar eruptions ever registered shook the heliosphere. These ‘‘Halloween storms’’ damaged 28 satellites, knocking two out of commission, diverted airplane routes, and caused power failures in Sweden, among other problems. This paper presents a 4-day end-to-end simulation of(More)
A total of 32 compounds was prepared to investigate the functional role of Phe(4) in NC(1-13)-NH(2), the minimal sequence maintaining the same activity as the natural peptide nociceptin. These compounds could be divided into three series in which Phe(4) was replaced with residues that would (i) alter aromaticity or side chain length, (ii) introduce steric(More)
The involvement of potassium channels in the venodilating capacity of the inodilator levosimendan in human saphenous vein preparations was investigated. Levosimendan caused relaxation with 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 0.32 +/- 0.04 microM in isolated veins contracted by 5-hydroxytryptamine. Fifteen microM glibenclamide, a blocker of the(More)