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We describe a conservative, shock-capturing scheme for evolving the equations of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. The fluxes are calculated using the Harten, Lax, and van Leer scheme. A variant of constrained transport, proposed earlier by Tóth, is used to maintain a divergence free magnetic field. Only the covariant form of the metric in a(More)
The effects of intracerebroventricularly administered endomorphin-2 (EM2) on open-field activity and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system were investigated. EM2 (0.25-1 microg) significantly increased both the locomotor and the rearing activity, resulting in a bell-shaped dose-response curve. EM2 also enhanced corticosterone release, with an even(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating popypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, exerting neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in numerous models of in vitro and in vivo nervous injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PACAP is neuroprotective in ischemic retinal damage. Adult male Wistar rats underwent bilateral(More)
Obtainable computational efficiency is evaluated when using an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) strategy in time accurate simulations governed by sets of conservation laws. For a variety of 1D, 2D, and 3D hydro-and magnetohydrodynamic simulations, AMR is used in combination with several shock-capturing, conservative discretization schemes. Solution accuracy(More)
The recently discovered endomorphin 1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and endomorphin 2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) were investigated with respect to their direct receptor-binding properties, and to their ability to activate G proteins and to inhibit adenylyl cyclase in both cellular and animal models. Both tetrapeptides activated G proteins and inhibited adenylyl cyclase(More)
The use of compounds with high selectivity for each opioid receptor (mu, delta and kappa) is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of opioid actions. Until recently non-peptide mu-opioid receptor selective antagonists were not available. However, N-cyclopropylmethyl-4,14-dimethoxy-morphinan-6-one (cyprodime) has shown a very high selectivity for(More)
[1] We present a three-dimensional (3-D) numerical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model describing the time-dependent expulsion of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from the solar corona propagating to 1 astronomical unit (AU). The simulations are performed using the Block Adaptive Tree Solar-Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code. We begin by developing a(More)
Kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I and KAT II) are responsible for the transamination of kynurenine (KYN) to form kynurenic acid (KYNA), an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. Since these members of the kynurenine pathway (KP) are proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's dementia (AD), the activities of these enzymes and the levels(More)