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The influence of serotonergic and benzodiazepine type anxiolytic drugs on the cortical activation and sleep-wakefulness cycle were compared by evaluating the effects of ritanserin and deramciclane (EGIS-3886), two 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, and chlordiazepoxide on the electroencephalogram (EEG) in freely moving rats. Following drug administration (1, 3,(More)
AMPA receptors are fast ligand-gated members of glutamate receptors in neuronal and many types of non-neuronal cells. The heterotetramer complexes are assembled from four subunits (GluR1-4) in region-, development- and function-selective patterns. Each subunit contains three extracellular domains (a large amino terminal domain, an agonist-binding domain and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining measures tissue viability used to evaluate infarct size. The goal of this study was to compare viability of neuronal tissue during the early phases of ischemia-reperfusion assessed either by perfusion of the brain with TTC solution transcardially, in vivo, or by staining brain slices,(More)
A 3-week chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol decreased sucrose preference of rats and increased immobility in the forced swim test. It also induced social avoidance and increased grooming, but acted as if reducing anxiety in the plus-maze. Sucrose preference and social avoidance, but not other measures of the behaviour, showed significant correlation. We(More)
Excessive stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during ischemia contributes to apoptotic and excitotoxic nerve cell death. Kynurenic acid is a selective antagonist at the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor complex at low concentration, and it is a broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor blocker at high concentration. Kynurenic(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Blockade of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors is a good treatment option for a variety of central nervous system disorders. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, as a potential drug candidate. (More)
The neuroprotective effect of L-kynurenine sulfate (KYN), a precursor of kynurenic acid (KYNA, a selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist), was studied. KYN (300 mg/kg i.p., applied daily for 5 days) appreciably decreased the number of injured pyramidal cells from 1850+/-100/mm(2) to 1000+/-300/mm(2) (p<0.001) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus(More)
Antagonists of 2-amino-3(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl) propionic acid (AMPA) receptors can considerably reduce brain damage after cerebral ischemia, but effectiveness of selective AMPA antagonists has been questioned recently. Therefore, we evaluated the antiischemic efficacy of(More)
L-kynurenine is a metabolic precursor of kynurenic acid, which is one of the few known endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibitors. In contrast with kynurenic acid, L-kynurenine is transported across the blood-brain barrier, and it may therefore come into consideration as a therapeutic agent in certain neurobiological disorders, e.g.(More)
EGIS-8332 and GYKI 53405 are selective, non-competitive AMPA (2-amino-3[3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl] propionic acid) antagonists that effectively protected against tissue injury caused by global and focal cerebral ischemia in laboratory animals. This study evaluated the therapeutic time window of neuroprotection by EGIS-8332 and GYKI 53405 in permanent(More)