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A major improvement in the selectivity of small graphite electrodes used for in vivo electrochemistry is described. The electrodes are coated with Nafion, a perfluorosulfonated polymer. This coating is practically impermeable to ascorbic acid and anionic biogenic amine metabolites and only slightly responsive to neutral metabolites. Thus it becomes(More)
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain 536 (O6:K15:H31) is one of the model organisms of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). To analyze this strain's genetic basis of urovirulence, we sequenced the entire genome and compared the data with the genome sequence of UPEC strain CFT073 (O6:K2:H1) and to the available genomes of nonpathogenic E. coli(More)
This paper is a survey of location-routing: a relatively new branch of locational analysis that takes into account vehicle routing aspects. We propose a classification scheme and look at a number of problem variants. Both exact and heuristic algorithms are investigated. Finally, some suggestions for future research are presented.
OBJECT The role of radiosurgery in the treatment of cavernous malformations (CMs) remains controversial. It is frequently recommended only for inoperable lesions that have bled at least twice. Rehemorrhage can carry a substantial risk of morbidity, however. The authors reviewed their practice of treating deep-seated inoperable CMs to assess the complication(More)
Role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in liver injury by acetaminophen (AAP) was studied in vivo in mice. Sublethal dose of AAP resulted in a decrease in microsomal total glutathione and in the reduced-to-total glutathione ratio; redox state of thiols of ER resident oxidoreductases ERp72, PDI was shifted towards the oxidized form; ER stress-responsive(More)
It has been recently shown that acute acetaminophen toxicity results in endoplasmic reticulum redox stress and an increase in cells with apoptotic phenotype in liver. Since activation of effector caspases was absent, the relevance of caspase-independent mechanisms in acetaminophen-induced programmed cell death was investigated. BGP-15, a drug with known(More)
Diffusion coefficients of catecholamine neurotransmitters, their metabolites and related species was measured in brain extracellular fluid using in vivo voltammetric techniques. Nanoliter volumes of the species were pressure-ejected into the rat caudate nucleus and their concentration profiles were determined at nearby voltammetric detector electrodes.(More)
For the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536 (O6:K15:H31), the DNA sequences of three pathogenicity islands (PAIs) (PAI I(536) to PAI III(536)) and their flanking regions (about 270 kb) were determined to further characterize the virulence potential of this strain. PAI I(536) to PAI III(536) exhibit features typical of PAIs, such as (i) association(More)