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Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signals through a receptor complex containing the type I (TGF-beta RI) and type II (TGF-beta RII) receptors. We describe here biochemical studies on early events in the TGF-beta signaling pathways. TGF-beta RII is highly phosphorylated when expressed alone in COS-1 cells; its autophosphorylation occurs via an(More)
Thirty-four elements of an early modern human (EMH) were found in Tianyuan Cave, Zhoukoudian, China in 2003. Dated to 42,000-39,000 calendrical years before present by using direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon, the Tianyuan 1 skeleton is among the oldest directly dated EMHs in eastern Eurasia. Morphological comparison shows Tianyuan 1 to have a(More)
Receptor subunits for the neurocytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) share sequence similarity with the receptor for leptin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine involved in body weight homeostasis. We report here that CNTF and leptin activate a similar pattern of STAT factors in neuronal cells, and that mRNAs for CNTF receptor subunits, similarly to the(More)
TGF-beta 1 binds with high affinity (KD = 25-50 pM) directly to the TGF-beta type II receptor serine-threonine kinase (T beta-RII) in the absence of expression of the TGF-beta type I or III receptors (T beta-RI and T beta-RIII). The serine-threonine kinase T beta-RI is essential for TGF-beta 1 signaling but not for binding to T beta-RII. TGF-beta 2, in(More)
Fibroblasts derived from embryos homozygous for a disruption of the retinoblastoma gene (Rb) exhibit a shorter G1 than their wild-type counterparts, apparently due to highly elevated levels of cyclin E protein and deregulated cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity. Here we demonstrate that the Rb-/- fibroblasts display higher levels of phosphorylated H1(More)
Though present before the Last Glacial Maximum, microblade technology is uncommon in the lithi c assembla ges of north-central China until the onset of the Younger Dryas (12,900–11,600 calBP). While it is clear that microblades here and elsewhere were connected with mobile adaptations organized around hunting, the attendant assumption that they served(More)
The spectra of the ferric form of most heme proteins [metmyoglobin, methemoglobin, horse radish peroxidase (EC, and ferricytochrome c at pH 1.5] are converted from high-spin (open crevice) structure to low-spin (closed crevice) form under pressure. Pressures up to 8000 kg/cm2 (780 MPa) have no effect on the spectra of high-spin ferro- and(More)
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