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In vertebrates, the descending reticulospinal pathway is the primary means of conveying locomotor command signals from higher motor centers to spinal interneuronal circuits, the latter including the central pattern generators for locomotion. The pathway is morphologically heterogeneous, being composed of various types of inparallel-descending axons, which(More)
The purpose of this study was 1). to characterize the morphology of lumbar commissural neurons (CNs) with reticulospinal inputs and 2). to quantitate their activity during locomotor rhythm generation. Intraaxonal recordings at the L4-7 level of the spinal cord were obtained in 67 neurons in the decerebrate, paralyzed cat. Fourteen of them were subsequently(More)
This chapter provides a conceptual overview of the role and operation of higher structures of the central nervous system (CNS) in the control of posture and locomotion in the mammal, including the nonhuman primate and the human. Both quadrupedal and bipedal locomotion require the integrated neural control of multiple body segments against gravity. During(More)
The Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) is a useful tool for studying the functional aspects of the spinal cord without anesthesia and/or damage to the body. H-reflex studies are performed mainly in the hindlimbs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of the H-reflex in the forelimbs and hindlimbs in rats anesthetized with ketamine-HCl.(More)
We developed a simple but ingenious histochemical method, 'in vivo perfusion-Turnbull's reaction', for the visualization of non-heme Fe(II) of the brain; in situ release of Fe(2+) ions was coupled with formation of insoluble reaction product (Turnbull's blue) by in vivo perfusion of acid ferricyanide through the abdominal (non-anoxic/non-ischemic brain) or(More)
The fine morphology of single pontine reticulospinal axons in the lumbar enlargement was investigated by using an anterograde Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) tracing technique. Localized injections of PHA-L were made into the nuclei reticularis pontis oralis and caudalis in four cats. Following survival periods of 8-9 weeks, PHA-L-labeled axons(More)
In high decerebrate cats, pulse train microstimulation of a restricted region of the midline cerebellar white matter produced a generalized increase in postural muscle tone in the neck, trunk, and limb extensor muscles, and air-stepping of all four legs on a stationary surface. On the moving belt of a treadmill, such stimulation produced well coordinated,(More)
This study explored how the normally quadrupedal Japanese monkey adjusts to treadmill perturbations, when trained to walk bipedally. The monkey was required to use the left hindlimb to clear an obstacle that was fixed on the left side of a treadmill belt. The monkey either cleared the obstacle (CL: cleared locomotion), or stumbled over it (SL: stumbled(More)
We have examined a cerebello-thalamo-striatal pathway from the lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) to the laterodorsal part of the striatum (LDS) through the central lateral nucleus (CL) using light and electron microscopy through the employment of a combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected(More)