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The purpose of this study was 1). to characterize the morphology of lumbar commissural neurons (CNs) with reticulospinal inputs and 2). to quantitate their activity during locomotor rhythm generation. Intraaxonal recordings at the L4-7 level of the spinal cord were obtained in 67 neurons in the decerebrate, paralyzed cat. Fourteen of them were subsequently(More)
In vertebrates, the descending reticulospinal pathway is the primary means of conveying locomotor command signals from higher motor centers to spinal interneuronal circuits, the latter including the central pattern generators for locomotion. The pathway is morphologically heterogeneous, being composed of various types of inparallel-descending axons, which(More)
The fine morphology of single pontine reticulospinal axons in the lumbar enlargement was investigated by using an anterograde Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) tracing technique. Localized injections of PHA-L were made into the nuclei reticularis pontis oralis and caudalis in four cats. Following survival periods of 8-9 weeks, PHA-L-labeled axons(More)
This chapter provides a conceptual overview of the role and operation of higher structures of the central nervous system (CNS) in the control of posture and locomotion in the mammal, including the nonhuman primate and the human. Both quadrupedal and bipedal locomotion require the integrated neural control of multiple body segments against gravity. During(More)
Bipedal locomotion is a common daily activity. Despite its apparent simplicity, it is a complex set of movements that requires the integrated neural control of multiple body segments. We have recently shown that the juvenile Japanese monkey, M. fuscata, can be operant-trained to walk bipedally on moving treadmill. It can control the body axis and lower limb(More)
The Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) is a useful tool for studying the functional aspects of the spinal cord without anesthesia and/or damage to the body. H-reflex studies are performed mainly in the hindlimbs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of the H-reflex in the forelimbs and hindlimbs in rats anesthetized with ketamine-HCl.(More)
This study explored how the normally quadrupedal Japanese monkey adjusts to treadmill perturbations, when trained to walk bipedally. The monkey was required to use the left hindlimb to clear an obstacle that was fixed on the left side of a treadmill belt. The monkey either cleared the obstacle (CL: cleared locomotion), or stumbled over it (SL: stumbled(More)
The operant-trained Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata, can walk with both a quadrupedal (Qp) and a bipedal (Bp) gait on the surface of a treadmill belt, which moves at different speeds. The animal can also learn to transform its locomotor pattern from Qp to Bp, and vice versa, without a break in forward walking speed. This nonhuman primate model provides an(More)
The rat bipedal walking model (RBWM) refers to rats that acquired anatomical and functional characteristics for bipedal walking after the completion of a long-term motor training program. We recorded the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) of the forelimb and hindlimb in RBWM and control (not trained, normal) rats to evaluate the effects of bipedal walking on(More)