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Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) promotes the expansion of the intestinal epithelium through stimulation of the GLP-2 receptor, a recently identified member of the glucagon-secretin G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Although activation of G protein-coupled receptors may lead to stimulation of cell growth, the mechanisms transducing the GLP-2 signal to(More)
The proglucagon gene is expressed in a highly cell-specific manner in islet and enteroendocrine cells. DNA sequences within the proximal proglucagon G1 promoter region bind the homeobox protein cdx-2/3, and cdx-2/3 activates the proglucagon promoter in fibroblasts. We show here that cdx-2/3 activates the proglucagon promoter in both islet (InR1-G9) and(More)
Claudins are proteins that participate in epithelial barrier function and regulate paracellular permeability. By immunohistochemistry of adult rat lung sections, claudin-3, claudin-4, and claudin-5 were found to be co-expressed by type II alveolar epithelial cells. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 were also co-expressed by some alveolar epithelial cells adjacent to(More)
To define further the mechanisms of gap junction protein (connexin (Cx)) oligomerization without pharmacologic disruption, we have examined the transport and assembly of connexin constructs containing C-terminal di-lysine-based endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (HKKSL) or ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (AKKFF) targeting sequences. By immunofluorescence(More)
Evidence from the literature suggests that the nervous and the immune systems closely interact via neuromediators, which affect the immune system, and cytokines, which control nerve cell growth and activity. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that has been identified in numerous tissues including immune organs and inhibits the(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein E (gE) promotes cell-to-cell spread at basolateral surfaces of epithelial cells, but its activity in neurons is less clear. We used the mouse retina infection model and neuronal cell cultures to define the spread phenotype of gE mutant viruses. Wild-type (WT) and gE-null (NS-gEnull) viruses both infected(More)
The present study was designed to investigate whether non-activated macrophages express calcitonin (CT) or calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors. To this end, we first analyzed whether CT and CGRP induce a cAMP accumulation in macrophages. Macrophages were treated for 2 min with increasing concentrations of either CT or CGRP in the presence or(More)
A key cellular event in atherogenesis is the interaction of macrophages with lipoproteins in the subendothelium. In vivo, these lipoproteins are bound to matrix and often aggregated, yet most cell-culture experiments explore these events using soluble monomeric lipoproteins. We hypothesized that the internalization and degradation of matrix-retained and(More)
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein E (gE) mediates cell-to-cell spread and functions as an IgG Fc receptor (FcγR) that blocks the Fc domain of antibody targeting the virus or infected cell. Efforts to assess the functions of the HSV-1 FcγR in vivo have been hampered by difficulties in preparing an FcγR-negative strain that is relatively intact for(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) produces oral lesions, encephalitis, keratitis, and severe infections in the immunocompromised host. HSV-1 is almost as common as HSV-2 in causing first episodes of genital herpes, a disease that is associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition and transmission. No approved vaccines are(More)