This study quantifies the sensitivity of surface runoff to drought and climate change in the Diyala watershed shared between Iraq and Iran. This was achieved through a combined use of a wide range of changes in the amount of precipitation (a decline between 0% and −40%) and in the potential evapotranspiration rate (an increase between 0% and +30%). The… (More)
In order to avoid environmental pollution and eliminate the need for using fertiliser, this study assessed for the first time the optimum performance of mature (in operation since 2011) vertical flow constructed wetlands in treating domestic wastewater (with and without hydrocarbon) and the subsequent recycling of the outflow to irrigate chillies (De… (More)
Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and… (More)
For the purpose of this paper, Erbil city, located in the northern part of Iraq, has been chosen as a representative case study for a large number of cities, particularly in semi-arid areas, lacking sustainable drainage systems (SuDS). The study assesses (a) the role of SuDS as a measure in areas with a water shortage; (b) water scarcity in decision-making… (More)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2016.e00154.].