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Intracellular accumulation of altered proteins, including p62 and ubiquitinated proteins, is the basis of most neurodegenerative disorders. The relationship among the accumulation of altered proteins, autophagy, and spinal cord dysfunction by cervical spondylotic myelopathy has not been clarified. We examined the expression of p62 and autophagy markers in(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays a role in the generation of post-ischemic edema. Pharmacological modulation of AQP4 function may thus provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stroke, tumor-associated edema, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and other disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with altered brain water balance.(More)
Midkine (MK) is a growth factor implicated in the development and repair of various tissues, especially neural tissues. MK acts as a reparative neurotrophic factor in damaged peripheral nerves. A postulated role of MK in the degeneration and regeneration of sciatic nerves was explored by comparing wild-type (Mdk(+/+)) mice with MK-deficient (Mdk(-/-)) mice(More)
Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 45β (GADD45β) is expressed in normal and early osteoarthritic articular cartilage. We recently reported that GADD45β enhances CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) activation in vitro. This study was undertaken in order to determine whether GADD45β is expressed with C/EBPβ in aging articular cartilage. We(More)
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a non-histone DNA-binding protein, is massively released into the extracellular space from neuronal cells after ischemic insult and exacerbates brain tissue damage in rats. Minocycline is a semisynthetic second-generation tetracycline antibiotic which has recently been shown to be a promising neuroprotective agent. In this(More)
Midkine (MK) is a multifunctional cytokine and heparin-binding growth factor with neurotrophic activity. MK and its receptor were examined for up to 14 days in a chemically injured rat muscle regeneration process caused by the injection of bupivacaine using immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis. Although MK immunoreactivity was not detectable in the(More)
Midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor, was previously found to be expressed in the rat myotube-forming stage. We investigated MK gene-deficient (Mdk(-/-)) mice in terms of skeletal muscle degeneration and regeneration after injury by bupivacaine injection into the tibialis anterior muscle. Injured muscles showed intense inflammatory cell(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was to clarify the roles of midkine (MK) in the brain. METHODS We determined cerebrospinal fluid MK levels in patients with neurological disorders by enzyme-linked immunoassay and immunostained autopsied brain samples in patients with meningitis. RESULTS MK levels were 0.37+/-0.21 ng/ml in controls (n=46, mean +/- S.D.), 0.67+/-0.19(More)
Edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger, is clinically used for the treatment of cerebral infarction in Japan. Here, we examined the effects of edaravone on the dynamics of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), which is a key mediator of ischemic-induced brain damage, during a 48-h postischemia/reperfusion period in rats and in oxygen-glucose-deprived (OGD)(More)
UNLABELLED Midkine (MK) is a growth factor with neurotrophic and neurite outgrowth activities. It was expressed in the peri-ischaemic area in the acute phase of cerebral infarction in rat brains. Astrocytes were the origin of MK in this occasion. MK has been assessed in terms of its effects on neural injury. The administration of MK into the lateral(More)