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Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively(More)
The influence of urbanization on nutrient cycling is vaguely known. Here we document that birds, especially those increasing in urban areas (such as crows, Corvus macrorhynchos and C. corone), affect nutrient cycles. Using fecal traps, we measured phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) input from the excrement of birds in fragmented forests in an urban landscape.(More)
Vexillabium yakushimense is a rare, terrestrial orchid which occurs in east and southeast Asia. In spite of its inconspicuous appearance, several new populations were discovered in central Honshu, Japan. Because these populations are geographically isolated at its northern range limit of distribution, they were suspected to have distinctive genetic(More)
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