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Urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. The general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. We quantitatively(More)
Forecasting the range expansion of nonindigenous organisms enables effective quarantine and the development of pre-arrival countermeasures, as well as raises public and scientific concerns among the general public. Here, we present an approach to forecasting the range expansion of the nonindigenous green crab Carcinus in Japanese waters, with consideration(More)
Potentially, golf courses could act as wildlife refuges under adequate golf course management. We assessed the impacts of golf course managements on arthropod communities by analyzing arthropod community data. Arthropods were collected using a sweeping-net method from turf areas. Information of management applied in each golf course such as frequency of(More)
Modelling and predicting the potential habitat and future range expansion of invasive species can help managers to mitigate the impact of such species. Because habitat suitability and the colonization process are key determinants of range expansion, inferences drawn from invasion patterns should be based on both attributes. To predict the potential habitat(More)
This study evaluated the effects of landscape on the distribution of Japanese hares Lepus brachyurus Temminck, 1845 hares along a rural-urban gradient. We surveyed the presence of hares in 62 forest patches in the Tama Hills, which spreads from forested mountains to the urban core, and found signs of hares in 23 patches. We evaluated the effects of habitat(More)
In urban landscapes, nearby birds contribute to allochthonous nutrient flow from residential areas to fragmented forests by consuming food in residential areas and depositing feces in forests. To estimate allochthonous nutrient flow qualitatively, the stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope approach is useful. However, the quantitative(More)
The species composition of a community is a subset of the regional species pool, and predicting the species composition of a community from ecological traits of organisms is an important objective in ecology. If such a prediction can be made feasible, we could assess the risk of invasion of locally new species (alien species and genetically modified(More)
A practical guideline for community-level ecological risk management is proposed, with particular emphasis on the mutual interdependencies of the scientific analysis, public consensus building, and an adaptive management. The procedure we recommend spans the screening of potential ecological risks, the involvement of related stakeholders, the conceptual(More)
The influence of urbanization on nutrient cycling is vaguely known. Here we document that birds, especially those increasing in urban areas (such as crows, Corvus macrorhynchos and C. corone), affect nutrient cycles. Using fecal traps, we measured phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) input from the excrement of birds in fragmented forests in an urban landscape.(More)
There are many methods to separa te the isozymes up to date. But they are all so timeconsuming and laborious, or require so expensive equipments , t ha t we can not utilize them in rout ine cl inical work. We separate lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and some other isozymes by ba tch method of DEAESephadex, based on resul t s by its column chromatography.(More)