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This paper examines the chaotic properties of the elementary cellular automaton rule 40. Rule 40 has been classified into Wolfram's class I and also into class 1 by G. Braga et al. These classifications mean that the time-space patterns generated by this cellular automaton die out in a finite time and so are not interesting. As such, we may hardly realize(More)
The present paper considers multi-state systems which are regarded as a generalization of binary systems, and generalizes the concepts of BW systems proposed by R. E. Barlow and Alexander S. Wu. Since the structure function of a BW system is defmed by using tht: minimal path sets of a binary coherent system, the BW system has a strict restriction that the(More)
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