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MassBank is the first public repository of mass spectra of small chemical compounds for life sciences (<3000 Da). The database contains 605 electron-ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS), 137 fast atom bombardment MS and 9276 electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS(n) data of 2337 authentic compounds of metabolites, 11 545 EI-MS and 834 other-MS data of 10,286(More)
Nitrogen (N) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) per se regulate many aspects of plant metabolism, growth, and development. N/NO(3)(-) also suppresses parts of secondary metabolism, including anthocyanin synthesis. Molecular components for this repression are unknown. We report that three N/NO(3)(-)-induced members of the LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY DOMAIN (LBD) gene family(More)
The notion that plants use specialized metabolism to protect against environmental stresses needs to be experimentally proven by addressing the question of whether stress tolerance by specialized metabolism is directly due to metabolites such as flavonoids. We report that flavonoids with radical scavenging activity mitigate against oxidative and drought(More)
To complete the metabolic map for an entire class of compounds, it is essential to identify gene-metabolite correlations of a metabolic pathway. We used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to identify the flavonoids produced by Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and flavonoid biosynthetic mutant lines. The structures of 15 newly identified and eight(More)
Metabolomics now plays a significant role in fundamental plant biology and applied biotechnology. Plants collectively produce a huge array of chemicals, far more than are produced by most other organisms; hence, metabolomics is of great importance in plant biology. Although substantial improvements have been made in the field of metabolomics, the uniform(More)
The upregulation of the tryptophan (Trp) pathway in rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae was indicated by: (i) enhanced enzyme activity of anthranilate synthase (AS), which regulates metabolic flux in the Trp pathway; (ii) elevated levels of the AS (OASA2, OASB1, and OASB2) transcripts; and (iii) increases in the contents of anthranilate, indole, and(More)
BACKGROUND Isobutanol is an important target for biorefinery research as a next-generation biofuel and a building block for commodity chemical production. Metabolically engineered microbial strains to produce isobutanol have been successfully developed by introducing the Ehrlich pathway into bacterial hosts. Isobutanol-producing baker's yeast (Saccharomyces(More)
To identify candidate genes involved in Arabidopsis flavonoid biosynthesis, we applied transcriptome coexpression analysis and independent component analyses with 1388 microarray data from publicly available databases. Two glycosyltransferases, UGT79B1 and UGT84A2 were found to cluster with anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. Anthocyanin was drastically reduced(More)
Arabidopsis TRANSPARENT TESTA19 (TT19) encodes a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-like protein that is involved in the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the seed coat. PA accumulation sites in tt19 immature seeds were observed as small vacuolar-like structures, whereas those in tt12, a mutant of the tonoplast-bound transporter of PAs, and tt12 tt19(More)
Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, a fast-growing halophilic cyanobacterium able to accumulate glycogen, was investigated for its feasibility to serve as feedstock for fermentative production of biofuels and chemicals. The culture conditions most appropriate for glycogen production were identified. Glycogen production was maximized by the depleting nitrate(More)