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and distorted version of an original sound or signal is reflected back to the source. In this article, we review practical echo cancellation techniques-in particular, those used in telecommunications. The theoretical basis for echo cancelers is in the field of adaptive filtering. This field has been extensively studied for the past few decades, and(More)
An environmental isolate of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), grown to the logarithmic phase, rapidly lost culturability by the addition of 3 mM H2O2 to cultures grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium; however, some H2O2-treated bacteria regained their culturability in M9 minimal medium, if sodium pyruvate was present at at least 0.3 mM. In addition, most pyruvate(More)
Synthetic antimicrobial 9-mer peptides were designed from the amino acid sequence of an active site of insect defensin to increase the number of positively charged amino acid residues. These peptides, RLRLRIGRR-NH2, RLLLRIGRR-NH2 and RLYLRIGRR-NH2, showed strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungus. These peptides showed no growth inhibition(More)
Activated macrophage phenotypes were influenced by the culture medium; a murine macrophage-like cell line, J774.1/JA-4, expresses different activated-macrophage phenotypes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when the cells are incubated in either Ham's F-12 medium (F-12) or Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM). Among these(More)
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