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Salusins are two newly discovered TOR-related peptides consisting of 28 and 20 amino acids and designated salusin-alpha and salusin-beta, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry techniques, salusin-like immunoreactivity was detected in the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract and immunopositive cells were distributed in the suprachiasmatic, supraoptic(More)
The hypothalamus is a region of the brain that plays a critical role in feeding regulation. It has been revealed by various physiological experiments that the feeding-regulating center is confined to the ventromedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH) and arcuate nucleus (ARC). Many kinds of neurons in these areas of the hypothalamus express factors(More)
Ghrelin, a novel peptide isolated from stomach tissue of rats and humans, has been identified as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In addition to its secretion from the stomach, ghrelin is also expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, intestine, kidney, placenta, and pancreas. GHS-R mRNA, on the other hand, is(More)
Synaptic relationships between ghrelin-like immunoreactive axon terminals and other neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were studied using immunostaining methods at the light and electron microscope levels. Many ghrelin-like immunoreactive axon terminals were found to be in apposition to ghrelin-like immunoreactive neurons at the light(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family. PACAP prevents ischemic delayed neuronal cell death (apoptosis) in the hippocampus. PACAP inhibits the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, especially JNK/SAPK(More)
The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus has been identified as a prime feeding regulating center in the brain. Several feeding regulating peptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are present in neurons of the ARC, which also serves as a primary targeting site for leptin, a feeding inhibiting hormone secreted predominantly(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP), recently isolated from the hypothalamus, is a novel peptide of 60 amino acid residues. GALP is an endogenous ligand of the orphan receptor and shows a high affinity to its specific receptor GalR2. GALP mRNA was shown to be expressed predominantly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the rat hypothalamus, a region considered to be one(More)
Morphological relationships between neuropeptide Y- (NPY) like and ghrelin-like immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) were examined using light and electron microscopy techniques. At the light microscope level, both neuron types were found distributed in the ARC and could be observed making contact with each other. Using a preembedding double(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 27- or 38-amino acid neuropeptide, which belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues of the eye, including the retina, cornea and lacrimal gland, and PACAP is known to exert pleiotropic effects(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is produced in neurones in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and is implicated in the neural control of feeding behaviour. Previously, we have reported that GALP immunoreactive fibres were in direct contact with orexin/hypocretin immunoreactive neurones in the rat lateral hypothalamus using double-immunofluorescence. Centrally(More)