Learn More
Ghrelin, a novel peptide isolated from stomach tissue of rats and humans, has been identified as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In addition to its secretion from the stomach, ghrelin is also expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, intestine, kidney, placenta, and pancreas. GHS-R mRNA, on the other hand, is(More)
We have investigated the in vivo effect of PACAP on rat Müller cells that are the predominant glial element in the retina. Müller cells were treated with PACAP38, either alone or in the presence of the PACAP-selective antagonist, PACAP6-38. Cellular proliferation was determined by measuring the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine, while interleukin-6 (IL-6)(More)
Synaptic relationships between ghrelin-like immunoreactive axon terminals and other neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were studied using immunostaining methods at the light and electron microscope levels. Many ghrelin-like immunoreactive axon terminals were found to be in apposition to ghrelin-like immunoreactive neurons at the light(More)
Salusins are two newly discovered TOR-related peptides consisting of 28 and 20 amino acids and designated salusin-alpha and salusin-beta, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry techniques, salusin-like immunoreactivity was detected in the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract and immunopositive cells were distributed in the suprachiasmatic, supraoptic(More)
The hypothalamus is a region of the brain that plays a critical role in feeding regulation. It has been revealed by various physiological experiments that the feeding-regulating center is confined to the ventromedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH) and arcuate nucleus (ARC). Many kinds of neurons in these areas of the hypothalamus express factors(More)
The gut-brain hormone ghrelin is known to stimulate growth hormone release from the pituitary gland, and to regulate appetite and energy metabolism. Ghrelin-containing neurons have been shown to form neuronal network with several types of appetite-regulating neurons in the hypothalamus. Although ghrelin-containing cell bodies have been reported to localize(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family. PACAP prevents ischemic delayed neuronal cell death (apoptosis) in the hippocampus. PACAP inhibits the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, especially JNK/SAPK(More)
Leptin is mainly produced in the white adipose tissue before being secreted into the blood and transported across the blood-brain barrier. Leptin binds to a specific receptor (LepR) that has numerous subtypes (LepRa, LepRb, LepRc, LepRd, LepRe, and LepRf). LepRb, in particular, is expressed in several brain nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus, the(More)
Novel neuropeptides acting as G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands are known to be localized in the brain and play a range of physiologic functions, one of which is feeding regulation. We describe the distribution and localization of these recently identified GPCR ligands and review their involvement in neuronal networks, particularly in feeding(More)
The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus has been identified as a prime feeding regulating center in the brain. Several feeding regulating peptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are present in neurons of the ARC, which also serves as a primary targeting site for leptin, a feeding inhibiting hormone secreted predominantly(More)