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Salusins are two newly discovered TOR-related peptides consisting of 28 and 20 amino acids and designated salusin-alpha and salusin-beta, respectively. Using immunohistochemistry techniques, salusin-like immunoreactivity was detected in the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract and immunopositive cells were distributed in the suprachiasmatic, supraoptic(More)
Ghrelin, a novel peptide isolated from stomach tissue of rats and humans, has been identified as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In addition to its secretion from the stomach, ghrelin is also expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, intestine, kidney, placenta, and pancreas. GHS-R mRNA, on the other hand, is(More)
The hypothalamus is a region of the brain that plays a critical role in feeding regulation. It has been revealed by various physiological experiments that the feeding-regulating center is confined to the ventromedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH) and arcuate nucleus (ARC). Many kinds of neurons in these areas of the hypothalamus express factors(More)
Synaptic relationships between ghrelin-like immunoreactive axon terminals and other neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were studied using immunostaining methods at the light and electron microscope levels. Many ghrelin-like immunoreactive axon terminals were found to be in apposition to ghrelin-like immunoreactive neurons at the light(More)
Galanin-like peptide (GALP), recently isolated from the hypothalamus, is a novel peptide of 60 amino acid residues. GALP is an endogenous ligand of the orphan receptor and shows a high affinity to its specific receptor GalR2. GALP mRNA was shown to be expressed predominantly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the rat hypothalamus, a region considered to be one(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) family. PACAP prevents ischemic delayed neuronal cell death (apoptosis) in the hippocampus. PACAP inhibits the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, especially JNK/SAPK(More)
The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus has been identified as a prime feeding regulating center in the brain. Several feeding regulating peptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are present in neurons of the ARC, which also serves as a primary targeting site for leptin, a feeding inhibiting hormone secreted predominantly(More)
Leptin is mainly produced in the white adipose tissue before being secreted into the blood and transported across the blood-brain barrier. Leptin binds to a specific receptor (LepR) that has numerous subtypes (LepRa, LepRb, LepRc, LepRd, LepRe, and LepRf). LepRb, in particular, is expressed in several brain nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus, the(More)
Neuropeptide W (NPW), which was recently isolated from the porcine hypothalamus, has been identified as the endogenous ligand of the orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR7 (NPBWR1) and GPR8 (NPBWR2). Infusion of NPW increases food intake in the light phase, whereas in the dark phase, it has the opposite effect. In this study, we used RT-PCR analysis to(More)
Neuropeptide W (NPW) is an anorectic peptide produced in the brain. Here, we showed that NPW was present in several hypothalamic nuclei, including the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. NPW expression was significantly up-regulated in leptin-deficient ob/ob and(More)