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Methylglyoxal (MG) is a physiological metabolite, but it is known to be toxic, inducing stress in cells and causing apoptosis. This study examines molecular mechanisms in the MG-induced signal transduction leading to apoptosis, focusing particularly on the role of JNK activation. We first confirmed that MG caused apoptosis in Jurkat cells and that it was(More)
In culture fluid, Klebsiella pneumoniae type 1 Kasuya strain produces polysaccharide exhibiting a strong adjuvant effect. The active substance responsible for the strong adjuvant effect of the polysaccharide isn ot its acidic polysaccharide fraction (the type-specific capsular antigen) but the neutral polysaccharide fraction. In the present study, a mutant(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-initiated tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway in some dendritic cells (DC) such as plasmacytoid DC (pDC) regulates T-cell responses. It is unclear whether bone marrow-derived myeloid DC (BMDC) express functional IDO. The IDO expression was examined in CD11c(+)CD11b(+) BMDC differentiated from mouse bone(More)
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a physiological metabolite, but it is known to be toxic, inducing stress and causing apoptosis. Our previous studies demonstrated that MG induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells by activating the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway, which induced an obvious decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, followed by(More)
Serum antibody responses of mice to repeatedly inhaled protein antigens such as bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin, plus or minus bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the form of an aerosol were studied. Results showed that the levels of responses to inhaled protein antigens varied, depending on the mouse strain-antigen combination and that LPS inhaled(More)
3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid (3HAA) is one of the tryptophan metabolites along the kynurenine pathway and induces apoptosis in T cells. We investigated the mechanism of 3HAA-induced apoptosis in mouse thymocytes. The optimal concentration of 3HAA for apoptosis induction was 300-500 microM. The induction of apoptosis by a suboptimal concentration (100 microM)(More)
Chimeric genes composed of immunoglobulin (Ig)-derived variable (V) regions and T-cell receptor (TCR)-derived constant (C) regions were constructed. The VL and VH genes showing anti-phosphorylcholine (PC) activity were used in this study. Two pairs of chimeric genes, VL-C beta and VH-C alpha genes, and VL-C alpha and VH-C beta genes, were inserted into an(More)
T-cell death, which occurs either for ontogenic T-cell selection or for activated T-cell elimination, is normally induced through binding of a specific ligand to cell-surface T-cell receptor for crosslinkage. Heavy metals and carbonyl compounds that bind to protein-reactive groups such as cysteine sulfhydryl groups and lysine epsilon-amino groups may also(More)
The abnormal accumulation of methylglyoxal (MG), a physiological glucose metabolite, is strongly related to the development of diabetic complications by affecting the metabolism and functions of organs and tissues. These disturbances could modify the cell response to hormones and growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I). In this study,(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-initiated tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway regulates T-cell responses in some dendritic cells (DC) such as plasmacytoid DC. A Kyn assay using HPLC showed that samples were frequently deproteinized with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). In the present study, bone marrow-derived myeloid DC (BMDC) were(More)