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OBJECTIVE The present study was undertaken to explore the relationship between the characteristic geometry of aneurysms prone to rupture and the blood flow patterns therein, using microsurgically produced aneurysms that simulated human middle cerebral artery aneurysms in scale and shape. METHODS We measured in vivo velocity profiles using our 20-MHz,(More)
There is accumulating circumstantial evidence suggesting that endothelial cell dysfunction contributes to the "no-reflow" phenomenon in postischemic kidneys. Here, we demonstrated the vulnerability of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo endothelial cells exposed to pathophysiologically relevant insults, such as oxidative and nitrosative stress or ischemia. All(More)
Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized in response to chemical and physical stimuli. Here, we investigated a possible role of the endothelial cell glycocalyx as a biomechanical sensor that triggers endothelial NO production by transmitting flow-related shear forces to the endothelial membrane. Isolated canine femoral arteries were perfused(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies in vitro have demonstrated that endothelium-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate our hypothesis that endothelium-derived H2O2 is an EDHF in vivo and plays an important role in coronary autoregulation. METHODS AND(More)
BACKGROUND Because coronary blood flow is impeded during systole, the duration of diastole is an important determinant of myocardial perfusion. The aim of this study was to show that coronary flow modulates the duration of diastole at constant heart rate. METHODS AND RESULTS In anesthetized, open-chest dogs, diastolic time fraction (DTF) increased(More)
The presence of a coronary stenosis results primarily in subendocardial ischemia. Apart from the decrease in coronary perfusion pressure, a stenosis also decreases coronary flow pulsations. Applying a coronary perfusion system, we compared the autoregulatory response of subendocardial (n = 10) and subepicardial (n = 12) arterioles (<120 microm) after(More)
We demonstrated recently that chronic administration of aldosterone to rats induces glomerular mesangial injury and activates mitogen-activated protein kinases including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We also observed that the aldosterone-induced mesangial injury and ERK1/2 activation were prevented by treatment with a selective(More)
Although bioavailability of NO in the coronary circulation is commonly evaluated by acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasodilation, a change in plasma NO concentration and its relation to the flow response after injection of ACh are still unknown. Thus, we directly measured the concentration of NO in the coronary sinus by using a catheter-type NO sensor for(More)
Using a needle-probe videomicroscope with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, we measured the diameter of subendocardial arterioles and venules during prolonged diastole beyond the time point at which coronary blood flow reached zero. In seven open-chest heart-blocked dogs, a sheathed needle probe with a doughnut-shaped balloon was introduced from the(More)
The phase opposition of velocity waveforms between coronary arteries (predominantly diastolic) and veins (systolic) is the most prominent characteristic of coronary hemodynamics. This unique arterial and venous flow patterns indicate the importance of intramyocardial capacitance vessels and variable resistance vessels during a cardiac cycle. It was shown(More)