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The vascular architecture of the human cerebral deep white matter was studied using soft X-ray and diaphanized specimens, achieved by intra-arterial injection of barium and vascular stain respectively, and also by electron microscopic examination of the corrosion cast of arteries in normal adult brains. The deep white matter arteries passed through the(More)
The microvascular architecture of the human cerebral subcortical white matter was studied. Most of the subcortical arteries ran straight through the cortex, but upon entering the white matter, they began to coil, loop, and spiral. Vascular stains showed wide spaces between the adventitial sheaths and blood vessels. The blood vessels coiled, looped, and(More)
In the present study, the human cerebral meninges were rich in blood vessels, but no capillaries were noted. The meningeal arteries ran over the veins where they crossed. Several arterial anastomoses existed on the cortical surface. The meningeal arteries were classified into four parts; the conducting artery approximately 700 microm in diameter,(More)
The vascular architecture of the human cerebellar meninges was investigated. The surface meninges were poor in vasculature. In the sulci, the meninges were highly vascular but had few capillaries. The venous blood vessels gave long side branches at right angles to the parent vessels in a cruciform pattern, running horizontally along the cerebellar sulci.(More)
Spinal cord infarction can be caused by venous disturbances due to trauma or cancer invasion. However, the precise mechanism of venous infarction is not fully understood. To characterize disorders associated with spinal venous occlusion, we performed time-kinetic pathological analyses of rat spinal cord infarction induced by transdural ligation of the(More)
The role of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in antitumor immunity has been studied extensively, and clinical trials in patients with advanced cancer have revealed a prolonged survival in some cases. In recent years, humanized blocking antibodies against co-stimulatory molecules such as PD-1 have been developed. The enhancement of T cell function is(More)
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