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All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct(More)
To clarify genome-wide DNA methylation profiles during multistage renal carcinogenesis, bacterial artificial chromosome array-based methylated CpG island amplification (BAMCA) was performed. Non-cancerous renal cortex tissue obtained from patients with clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) (N) was at the precancerous stage where DNA hypomethylation and(More)
Genetic rearrangement of the ROS1 receptor tyrosine kinase was recently identified as a distinct molecular signature for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, direct evidence of lung carcinogenesis induced by ROS1 fusion genes remains to be verified. The present study shows that EZR-ROS1 plays an essential role in the oncogenesis of NSCLC(More)
To establish diagnostic criteria for ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (PCs), bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array-based methylated CpG island amplification was performed using 139 tissue samples. Twelve BAC clones, for which DNA methylation status was able to discriminate cancerous tissue (T) from noncancerous pancreatic tissue in the learning(More)
The TNFAIP3 gene, which encodes a ubiquitin-modifying enzyme (A20) involved in the negative regulation of NF-κB signaling, is frequently inactivated by gene deletions/mutations in a variety of B-cell malignancies. However, the detection of this in primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) specimens is hampered by the scarcity of Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HR-S) cells even(More)
Germ cell tumors constitute a heterogeneous group that displays a broad spectrum of morphology. They often arise in testes; however, extragonadal occurrence, in particular brain, is not uncommon, and whether they share a common pathogenesis is unknown. We performed whole exome sequencing in 41 pairs of central nervous system germ cell tumors (CNS GCTs) of(More)
The aim of this study was to clarify the genetic backgrounds underlying the clinicopathological characteristics of urothelial carcinomas (UCs). Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis using a 244K oligonucleotide array was performed on 49 samples of UC tissue. Losses of 2q33.3-q37.3, 4p15.2-q13.1 and 5q13.3-q35.3 and gains of 7p11.2-q11.23 and(More)
Materials and methods The experimental protocol was approved by the institutional review board (National Cancer Center, #2013-244) and written informed consent was obtained. Participants were 8 healthy Japanese males (age 30-46 years). Exclusion criteria were use of antibiotics in the previous year, previous colonoscopy, smoking, alcohol consumption, and(More)
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