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Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been conserved remarkably during evolution and is widely expressed in the mammalian brain. In Drosophila, mutation of the PACAP homologue results in behavioral defects, including impaired olfaction-associated learning and changes in ethanol sensitivity. Here, we report the generation of mice(More)
Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein. Herein, we report that pancreatic islets of wfs1-deficient mice exhibit increases in phosphorylation of RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase, chaperone(More)
GABA is synthesized by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which has two forms, GAD65 and GAD67. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of mouse GAD65 (mGAD65) gene expression, we isolated and characterized the mGAD65 gene. The mGAD65 gene was found to be divided into 16 exons and spread over 75 kb. The sequence of the first exon and the 5'-flanking region(More)
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) comprises a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyse the ester bond of phospholipids at the sn-2 position. Among the members of this superfamily, cytosolic PLA2 has attracted attention because it preferentially hydrolyses arachidonoyl phospholipids and is activated by submicromolar concentrations of Ca2+ ions and by phosphorylation by(More)
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent phospholipid mediator with diverse biological activities in addition to its well-known ability to stimulate platelet aggregation. Pharmacologic studies had suggested a role for PAF in pregnancy, neuronal cell migration, anaphylaxis, and endotoxic shock. Here we show that disruption of the PAF receptor gene in(More)
The cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) has been implicated in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Thioredoxin (TRX), a redox (reduction/oxidation)-active protein, has recently been shown to protect cells from oxidative stress and apoptosis. To elucidate the roles of oxidative stress in(More)
Hypoglycosylation and reduced laminin-binding activity of alpha-dystroglycan are common characteristics of dystroglycanopathy, which is a group of congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), caused by a mutation in the fukutin gene, is a severe form of dystroglycanopathy. A retrotransposal insertion(More)
Semaphorins, a family of secreted and membrane-bound proteins, are known to function as repulsive axon guidance molecules. Sema4D, a class 4 transmembrane-type semaphorin, is expressed by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system, but its role is unknown. In this study, the effects of Sema4D deficiency on oligodendrocytes were studied in intact and(More)
PURPOSE To explore the role in the eye of tenomodulin (TeM), a chondromodulin (ChM)-I-related glycoprotein, the expression, localization, and antiangiogenic potential of TeM were investigated. METHODS Gene expression and protein localization of TeM in mouse eyes were examined by Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical(More)
OBJECTIVE Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and are thought to be key regulators in differentiation, cellular growth, and gene expression. Although several experiments using pancreatic β-cell lines have shown that the ligands of nuclear hormone receptors modulate insulin secretion, it is not clear whether(More)