Fulton T Crews

Learn More
Inflammation is implicated in the progressive nature of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. A single systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha, 0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) injection was administered in adult wild-type mice and in mice lacking TNFalpha(More)
AIMS This is a review of preclinical studies covering alcohol-induced brain neuronal death and loss of neurogenesis as well as abstinence-induced brain cell genesis, e.g. brain regeneration. Efforts are made to relate preclinical studies to human studies. METHODS The studies described are preclinical rat experiments using a 4-day binge ethanol treatment(More)
Cortical growth and remodeling continues from birth through youth and adolescence to stable adult levels changing slowly into senescence. There are critical periods of cortical development when specific experiences drive major synaptic rearrangements and learning that only occur during the critical period. For example, visual cortex is characterized by a(More)
Impairments of learning and memory are common neuropsychological sequelae of chronic alcohol abuse. Alcoholics often have impairments of anterograde memory, including spatial memory dysfunction, and a tendency toward response perseveration. This study was designed to assess the effects of binge ethanol exposure on neurodegeneration and cognitive function.(More)
Cytokines and alcohol share a common modulation of inflammation and hormones as well as being implicated in multiple diseases, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of liver, serum and brain cytokines as well as whether ethanol would potentiate endotoxin (Lipopolysaccharide, LPS) responses(More)
BACKGROUND Although alcoholics show neurodegeneration after decades of drinking, recent studies with an animal model of binge drinking have found corticolimbic damage after as few as four days. Neurodegeneration can occur through apoptotic or necrotic mechanisms. The goal of this research is to characterize the time course of binge ethanol-induced(More)
Alcohol and substance abuse disorders involve continued use of substances despite negative consequences, i.e. loss of behavioral control of drug use. The frontal-cortical areas of the brain oversee behavioral control through executive functions. Executive functions include abstract thinking, motivation, planning, attention to tasks and inhibition of(More)
Cytokines and microglia have been implicated in anxiety, depression, neurodegeneration as well as the regulation of alcohol drinking and other consumatory behaviors, all of which are associated with alcoholism. Studies using animal models of alcoholism suggest that microglia and proinflammatory cytokines contribute to alcoholic pathologies [Crews, F.T.,(More)
BACKGROUND Adolescents respond differently to alcohol than adults. Furthermore, binge drinking in young adolescents is becoming increasingly common. METHODS To determine if the effects of binge drinking on brain damage are different in juveniles compared with adults, the effects of a 4 day binge ethanol treatment (e.g., 4 days of 4 times per day 15%(More)
Adolescence is a period of progressive changes in brain that likely contribute to the maturation of behavior. Human adolescents consume large amounts of ethanol. To investigate the effects of ethanol on adolescent neural progenitor cells, male rats (35-40 days old) were treated with an acute dose of ethanol (1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 g/kg, i.g.) or vehicle that(More)