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BACKGROUND Patients with a microscopically visible deletion of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 1 have a recognisable phenotype, including mental retardation, microcephaly, growth retardation, a distinct facial appearance and various midline defects including corpus callosum abnormalities, cardiac, gastro-oesophageal and urogenital defects, as(More)
BACKGROUND The causes of intellectual disability remain largely unknown because of extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity. METHODS We evaluated patients with intellectual disability to exclude known causes of the disorder. We then sequenced the coding regions of more than 21,000 genes obtained from 100 patients with an IQ below 50 and their(More)
Severe intellectual disability (ID) occurs in 0.5% of newborns and is thought to be largely genetic in origin. The extensive genetic heterogeneity of this disorder requires a genome-wide detection of all types of genetic variation. Microarray studies and, more recently, exome sequencing have demonstrated the importance of de novo copy number variations(More)
Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with many neurocognitive disorders; however, these events are typically large, and the underlying causative genes are unclear. We created an expanded CNV morbidity map from 29,085 children with developmental delay in comparison to 19,584 healthy controls, identifying 70 significant CNVs. We resequenced 26 candidate(More)
CHARGE syndrome is a common cause of congenital anomalies affecting several tissues in a nonrandom fashion. We report a 2.3-Mb de novo overlapping microdeletion on chromosome 8q12 identified by array comparative genomic hybridization in two individuals with CHARGE syndrome. Sequence analysis of genes located in this region detected mutations in the gene(More)
Fragile X syndrome is the most common known cause of inherited mental retardation. Identification of patients and carriers of fragile X syndrome is usually done with a DNA test system but we have developed a rapid antibody to identify fragile X patients. This non-invasive test requires only 1 or 2 drops of blood and can be used for screening large groups of(More)
BACKGROUND CHARGE syndrome is a non-random clustering of congenital anomalies including coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies, and deafness. A consistent feature in CHARGE syndrome is semicircular canal hypoplasia resulting in vestibular areflexia. Other commonly associated congenital(More)
Microarray-based copy number analysis has found its way into routine clinical practice, predominantly for the diagnosis of patients with unexplained mental retardation. However, the clinical interpretation of submicroscopic copy number variants (CNVs) is complicated by the fact that many CNVs are also present in the general population. Here we introduce and(More)
BACKGROUND Chromosome 17p13.3 contains extensive repetitive sequences and is a recognised region of genomic instability. Haploinsufficiency of PAFAH1B1 (encoding LIS1) causes either isolated lissencephaly sequence or Miller-Dieker syndrome, depending on the size of the deletion. More recently, both microdeletions and microduplications mapping to the(More)
The deletion 9p syndrome is caused by a constitutional monosomy of part of the short arm of chromosome 9. It is clinically characterized by dysmorphic facial features (trigonocephaly, midface hypoplasia, and long philtrum), hypotonia and mental retardation. Deletion 9p is known to be heterogeneous and exhibits variable deletion sizes. The critical region(More)