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Commissural axons in vertebrates and insects are initially attracted to the nervous system midline, but once they reach this intermediate target they undergo a dramatic switch, becoming responsive to repellent Slit proteins at the midline, which expel them onto the next leg of their trajectory. We have unexpectedly implicated a divergent member of the Robo(More)
The Slit genes encode secreted ligands that regulate axon branching, commissural axon pathfinding and neuronal migration. The principal identified receptor for Slit is Robo (Roundabout in Drosophila). To investigate Slit signalling in forebrain development, we generated Robo1 knockout mice by targeted deletion of exon 5 of the Robo1 gene. Homozygote(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) directly innervates the output structures of the basal ganglia, playing a key role in basal ganglia function. It is therefore important to understand the regulatory mechanisms for the activity of STN neurons. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how the intrinsic membrane properties of STN neurons interact with their(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a key role in motor control. Although previous studies have suggested that Ca(2+) conductances may be involved in regulating the activity of STN neurons, Ca(2+) channels in this region have not yet been characterized. We have therefore investigated the subtypes and functional characteristics of Ca(2+) conductances in STN(More)
To elucidate guidance mechanisms of brain commissural axons, we examined the navigation of cerebellofugal axons. Axons were labeled by implantation of the fluorescent tracer Dil into the cerebellar plate (CP) of fixed, flat whole-mount embryonic rat brain. Axons initially grew straight toward the ventral midline floor plate (FP) in the rostral hindbrain and(More)
Netrin-1, a diffusible signal secreted by floor plate cells at the ventral midline of the vertebrate CNS, can attract ventrally migrating axons and repel a subset of dorsally migrating axons in the spinal cord and rostral hindbrain in vitro. Whether netrin-1 can act as a global cue to guide all circumferentially migrating axons is, however, unknown. Here,(More)
Most GABAergic interneurons originate from the basal forebrain and migrate tangentially into the cortex. The migratory pathways and mode of interneuron migration within the developing cerebral cortex, however, previously was largely unknown. Time-lapse imaging and in vivo labelling with glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)67-green fluorescence protein (GFP)(More)
Time-lapse studies indicate that ventricular zone (VZ)-derived cells show two migratory modes in the cerebral cortex at different stages of mammalian embryogenesis: somal translocation and locomotion. We carried out a systematic analysis to examine whether the migratory behavior of cortical neurons derived from the cortical VZ is stage-dependent. We labeled(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates that signaling centers controlling the dorsoventral (DV) polarization of the neural tube, the roof plate and the floor plate, play crucial roles in axon guidance along the DV axis. However, the role of signaling centers regulating the rostrocaudal (RC) polarization of the neural tube in axon guidance along the RC axis remains(More)
In Drosophila, Slit at the midline activates Robo receptors on commissural axons, thereby repelling them out of the midline into distinct longitudinal tracts on the contralateral side of the central nervous system. In the vertebrate spinal cord, Robo1 and Robo2 are expressed by commissural neurons, whereas all three Slit homologs are expressed at the(More)