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Many factors contribute to nervous system dysfunction and failure to regenerate after injury or disease. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized mechanism for nervous system injury. We show that neuronal injury causes rapid, irreversible, and preferential proteolysis of the axon initial segment (AIS) cytoskeleton independently of cell death or axon(More)
It is increasingly recognized that the mechanisms underlying ischemic cell death are sexually dimorphic. Stroke-induced cell death in males is initiated by the mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor, resulting in caspase-independent cell death. In contrast, ischemic cell death in females is primarily triggered by mitochondrial cytochrome c(More)
Inflammatory processes have a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of stroke. A key initial event is the rapid activation of resident immune cells, primarily microglia. This cell population is an important target for new therapeutic approaches to limit stroke damage. Activation of microglia is normally held in check by strictly controlled mechanisms(More)
Acute ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability in the elderly. Age is the most important nonmodifiable risk factor for stroke, yet many preclinical models continue to examine only young male animals. It remains unclear how experimental stroke outcomes change with aging and with biologic sex. If sex differences are present, it is not(More)
Considerable debate exists in the literature on how best to measure infarct damage and at what point after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) infarct is histologically complete. As many researchers are focusing on more chronic endpoints in neuroprotection studies it is important to evaluate histological damage at later time points to ensure that(More)
Aging is a non-modifiable risk factor for stroke. Since not all strokes can be prevented, a major emerging area of research is the development of effective strategies to enhance functional recovery after stroke. However, in the vast majority of pre-clinical stroke studies, the behavioral tests used to assess functional recovery have only been validated for(More)
It is increasingly recognized that histological and functional outcomes after stroke are shaped by biologic sex. Emerging data suggests that ischemic cell death pathways are sexually dimorphic (Hurn, P., Vannucci, S., Hagberg, H. (2005) Adult or perinatal brain injury: does sex matter?. Stroke 36, 193-195 ; Lang, J.T., McCullough, L.D. (2008) Pathways to(More)
Vascular early response gene (Verge) is a novel immediate early gene that is highly expressed during developmental angiogenesis and after ischemic insults in adult brain. However, the role of Verge after neonatal injury is not known. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Verge contributes to vascular remodeling and tissue repair after(More)
Social isolation (SI) is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for stroke. Individuals with lack of social support systems have an increased incidence of stroke, poorer recovery, and greater functional decline after injury compared to individuals with social support. Attesting to the importance of social factors in stroke outcome is that these same(More)
Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Ischemic sensitivity changes throughout the lifespan and outcomes depend largely on variables like age, sex, hormonal status, inflammation, and other existing risk factors. Immune responses after stroke play a central role in how these factors interact. Although the post-stroke immune response has been extensively(More)