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Many factors contribute to nervous system dysfunction and failure to regenerate after injury or disease. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized mechanism for nervous system injury. We show that neuronal injury causes rapid, irreversible, and preferential proteolysis of the axon initial segment (AIS) cytoskeleton independently of cell death or axon(More)
Vascular early response gene (Verge) is a novel immediate early gene that is highly expressed during developmental angiogenesis and after ischemic insults in adult brain. However, the role of Verge after neonatal injury is not known. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Verge contributes to vascular remodeling and tissue repair after(More)
Considerable debate exists in the literature on how best to measure infarct damage and at what point after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) infarct is histologically complete. As many researchers are focusing on more chronic endpoints in neuroprotection studies it is important to evaluate histological damage at later time points to ensure that(More)
It is increasingly recognized that histological and functional outcomes after stroke are shaped by biologic sex. Emerging data suggests that ischemic cell death pathways are sexually dimorphic (Hurn, P., Vannucci, S., Hagberg, H. (2005) Adult or perinatal brain injury: does sex matter?. Stroke 36, 193-195 ; Lang, J.T., McCullough, L.D. (2008) Pathways to(More)
Background and Purpose—Over the past 5 years, experimental data have emerged that ischemia-induced cell death pathways may differ in males and females. Cell death in males is triggered by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. We have previously shown that interference with this pathway benefits males(More)
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionary conserved energy sensor sensitive to changes in cellular AMP/ATP ratio which is activated by phosphorylation (pAMPK). pAMPK levels decrease in peripheral tissues with age, but whether this also occurs in the aged brain, and how this contributes to the ability of the aged brain to(More)
Aging is a non-modifiable risk factor for stroke. Since not all strokes can be prevented, a major emerging area of research is the development of effective strategies to enhance functional recovery after stroke. However, in the vast majority of pre-clinical stroke studies, the behavioral tests used to assess functional recovery have only been validated for(More)
A variety of animal models have been developed for modeling ischemic stroke. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model has been utilized extensively, especially in rodents. While the MCAO model provides stroke researchers with an excellent platform to investigate the disease, controversial or even paradoxical results are occasionally seen in the(More)
Age, sex, and gonadal hormones have profound effects on ischemic stroke outcomes, although how these factors impact basic stroke pathophysiology remains unclear. There is a plethora of inconsistent data reported throughout the literature, primarily due to differences in the species examined, the timing and methods used to evaluate injury, the models used,(More)
Social isolation (SI) is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for stroke. Individuals with lack of social support systems have an increased incidence of stroke, poorer recovery, and greater functional decline after injury compared to individuals with social support. Attesting to the importance of social factors in stroke outcome is that these same(More)