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Translation inhibition is a major but poorly understood mode of action of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants and animals. In particular, the subcellular location where this process takes place is unknown. Here, we show that the translation inhibition, but not the mRNA cleavage activity, of Arabidopsis miRNAs requires ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AMP1). AMP1 encodes(More)
Effectors are essential virulence proteins produced by a broad range of parasites, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, protozoa, insects and nematodes. Upon entry into host cells, pathogen effectors manipulate specific physiological processes or signaling pathways to subvert host immunity. Most effectors, especially those of eukaryotic pathogens,(More)
Secondary dengue infections are frequently associated with increased risk for dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Surprisingly, we observed no dengue hemorrhagic fever cases among 353 hospitalized dengue-infected patients including 212 with primary, and 141 with secondary dengue 1 infection in China. To explore virological and immunological(More)
C-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. Several C-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. We previously identified a C-type lectin in Aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific C-type lectin-1 (mosGCTL-1), facilitating the(More)
Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and(More)
The timing of the origin and diversification of rodents remains controversial, due to conflicting results from molecular clocks and paleontological data. The fossil record tends to support an early Cenozoic origin of crown-group rodents. In contrast, most molecular studies place the origin and initial diversification of crown-Rodentia deep in the(More)
Dengue has been well recognized as a global public health threat, but only sporadic epidemics and imported cases were reported in recent decades in China. Since July 2014, an unexpected large dengue outbreak has occurred in Guangdong province, China, resulting in more than 40000 patients including six deaths. To clarify and characterize the causative agent(More)
To date, the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in humans is still not well understood. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-specific CTL responses, in particular their magnitude and duration of postinfection immunity, have not been extensively studied. In this study, we found that heat-inactivated SARS-CoV elicited recall CTL responses to(More)
BACKGROUND Limited studies have been done on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients defined according to the latest Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver guideline with liver histology by a large sample size. METHODS We retrospectively evaluated liver histological characteristics on a cohort of consecutive treatment-naive CHB patients with(More)
The use of Lactococcus lactis for the co-delivery of antigens and cytokines has been shown to successfully induce a special immune response. However, it is unknown whether the same results may be triggered through immunization of animals with L. lactis simultaneously carrying protein antigen and cytokine DNA. The present study evaluated the protective(More)