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CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, is expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and is essential for immune activation. Although agonistic CD40 antibodies have been developed for immunotherapy, their clinical efficacy has been limited. We have found that coengagement of the Fc domain of agonistic CD40 monoclonal(More)
Treatment with monoclonal antibody specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, has emerged as an effective therapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Although subject to debate, current models favor a mechanism of activity involving blockade of the inhibitory activity of CTLA-4(More)
Eukaryotic proteomes abound in low-complexity sequences, including tandem repeats and regions with significantly biased amino acid compositions. We assessed the functional importance of compositionally biased sequences in the yeast proteome using an evolutionary analysis of 2838 orthologous open reading frame (ORF) families from three Saccharomyces species(More)
The intronic enhancer (E mu) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus is critical for V region gene assembly. To determine E mu's subsequent functions, we created an Igh allele with assembled V(H) gene but with E mu removed. In mice homozygous for this E mu-deficient allele, B cell development was normal and indistinguishable from that of mice with the(More)
Tumors are composed of multiple cell types besides the tumor cells themselves, including innate immune cells such as macrophages. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells present in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, they contribute to immunosuppression, enabling the establishment and persistence of solid(More)
Triterpenoids extracted from Cimicifuga foetida have been reported to inhibit cancer by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In this study, KHF16 (24-acetylisodahurinol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside), a cycloartane triterpenoid isolated from the rhizomes of C. foetida, showed potent anti-cancer activity in multiple ERα/PR/HER2 triple-negative breast cancer(More)
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant and lethal type of primary central nervous system tumor in humans. In spite of its high lethality, a small percentage of patients have a relatively good prognosis, with median survival times of 36 months or longer. The identification of clinical subsets of GBM associated with distinct(More)
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