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Treatment with monoclonal antibody specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), an inhibitory receptor expressed by T lymphocytes, has emerged as an effective therapy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Although subject to debate, current models favor a mechanism of activity involving blockade of the inhibitory activity of CTLA-4(More)
CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, is expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and is essential for immune activation. Although agonistic CD40 antibodies have been developed for immunotherapy, their clinical efficacy has been limited. We have found that coengagement of the Fc domain of agonistic CD40 monoclonal(More)
The murine Igh locus has a 3' regulatory region (3' RR) containing four enhancers (hs3A, hs1,2, hs3B, and hs4) at DNase I-hypersensitive sites. The 3' RR exerts long-range effects on class switch recombination (CSR) to several isotypes through its control of germ line transcription. By measuring levels of acetylated histones H3 and H4 and of dimethylated H3(More)
By virtue of their ability to induce apoptosis and regulate growth, differentiation, and cytokine responses, the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily members have emerged as attractive targets for anticancer therapeutics. Agonistic antibodies to apoptosis-inducing TNFRs, such as death receptor 5 (DR5), although displaying impressive activities(More)
The in vivo biological activities of IgG antibodies result from their bifunctional nature, in which antigen recognition by the Fab is coupled to the effector and immunomodulatory diversity found in the Fc domain. This diversity, resulting from both amino acid and glycan heterogeneity, is translated into cellular responses through Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), a(More)
Agonistic anti-TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily member antibodies are a class of promising antitumor therapies in active clinical investigation. An unexpected requirement for inhibitory Fcγ receptor FcγRIIB coengagement has recently been described for their in vivo antitumor activities. Although these findings have informed the design of more potent(More)
The inhibitory FcγR FcγRIIB is widely expressed on B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and myeloid effector cells and modulates a variety of Ab-driven in vivo functions. Although it has been established that FcγRIIB plays an important role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, the responsible cell-specific FcγRIIB expression remains to be determined. In(More)
Tumors are composed of multiple cell types besides the tumor cells themselves, including innate immune cells such as macrophages. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells present in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, they contribute to immunosuppression, enabling the establishment and persistence of solid(More)
Fungal infection stimulates the canonical C-type lectin receptor (CLR) signaling pathway via activation of the tyrosine kinase Syk. Here we identify a crucial role for the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in mediating CLR-induced activation of Syk. Ablation of the gene encoding SHP-2 (Ptpn11; called 'Shp-2' here) in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages impaired(More)