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Background. Anatomic variations, the presence of the pyramidal lobe (PL), may impact completeness of thyroidectomy and effect of surgical treatment. Method. This study included 166 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The anterior cervical region between the thyroid isthmus and the hyoid bone was dissected during thyroid surgery. The incidence, size,(More)
The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) has many anatomical variations and various relations with adjacent structures. Identification and total exposure of the cervical part of the RLN was performed during operations on the thyroid gland. An extremely rare anatomical variation of the nerve was encountered during the surgical procedure. Coexistence of both right(More)
Anatomical variations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), such as an extralaryngeal terminal bifurcation (ETB), threaten the safety of thyroid surgery. Besides the morphology of the nerve branches, intraoperative evaluation of their functional anatomy may be useful to preserve motor activity. We exposed 67 RLNs in 36 patients. The main trunk,(More)
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