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Diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD), usually accompanied with chronically elevated glucocorticoids and hippocampal astrocytic alterations, is one of the most serious complications in patients with type-1 diabetes. However, the role for chronically elevated glucocorticoids and hippocampal astrocytic activations in DCD remains to be elucidated, and it is not(More)
The endogenous tetrapeptide endomorphin-2 (EM2) participates in pain modulation by binding to pre- and/or post-synaptic μ opioid receptor (MOR). In the present study, pathological expression and antinociceptive effects of EM2 at the spinal level were investigated in a rat model of bone cancer pain. The model was established by introducing Walker 256 mammary(More)
The delta subunit of F1F0 ATPase (ATP synthase complex) is part of the stalk connecting the F1 and F0 moieties. Studies in Escherichia coli suggest that the analogous bacterial subunit, called epsilon, is essential for the ATPase assembly energy coupling. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is an important growth factor for various cell types, including(More)
A cortical infarct of 2 mm diameter was obtained in the parietal cortex after a craniotomy, disruption of the dura mater and topical application of 3 M KCl. It has been shown previously that the presence of a small cortical infarct induces an increase in immediate early gene messenger RNA expression followed by an increase in neuropeptide and glutamic acid(More)
The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The(More)
Protein kinase C (PKC) consists of a family of different subtypes encoded by different PKC genes. We investigated the distribution of PKC beta 1 and PKC beta 2 in the visual system of the adult cat by in situ hybridization using oligonucleotide probes complementary to the PKC beta 1 and PKC beta 2 mRNAs, two splicing variants of the same gene transcript. In(More)
The vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, reportedly display complementary distribution in the rat brain. However, co-expression of them in single neurons has been reported in some brain areas. We previously found co-expression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNAs in a number of single neurons in the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (Vp) of the(More)
Glutamate transmission from vestibular end organs to central vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) plays important role in transferring sensory information about head position and movements. Three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been considered so far the most specific markers for glutamatergic neurons/cells. In this study, VGLUT1 and(More)
The distribution of immediate early gene zif-268, c-fos, c-jun and jun-D mRNAs was investigated in the visual cortex, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and hippocampus of the adult cat brain with in situ hybridization. In area 17, zif-268, c-jun and jun-D were found predominantly in layers II-III and VI, while c-fos mRNA was abundant in layer VI. In area(More)
In an attempt to characterize changes in transcription after a sub-chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), we investigated gene expression profiles using cDNA microarray. Among 7523 genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) examined, 444 transcripts, including 218 genes and 226 ESTs, were identified to be either up-regulated (373 of 444) or down-regulated (71 of(More)