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The penicilllin-binding proteins (PBPs) of several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have been examined. The results indicate that: (i) PBPs are membrane proteins with molecular weights ranging from 40,000 to 120,000. When extracted with Triton X-100 from sonicated cells, they appear to fall into two patterns: one found in rods and the other in(More)
The effects of oligomerization and liposomal entrapment on pulmonary insulin absorption were investigated in rats using an intratracheal instillation method. The results indicated that both dimeric and hexameric insulins can be rapidly absorbed into the systemic circulation, producing a significant hypoglycemic response. Intratracheal instillation of(More)
The binding of 14 structurally diverse beta-lactam antibiotics to penicillin-binding proteins of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis was studied, and the results were examined in the context of the antibacterial activity of the compounds. Penicillin-binding proteins 1 (molecular weight, 87,000) and 3 (molecular weight, 75,000) of S. aureus and(More)
Self-association of zinc-insulin monomers into dimers and hexamers may lead to enhanced protection of the peptide from proteolytic degradation. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the relationship, if any, between the rate of enzymatic degradation of insulin by a protease, alpha-chymotrypsin, and the extent of insulin aggregation in aqueous(More)
Low oxygen level or oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) is a major factor causing neuronal damage in many diseases. Inducing cell adaptation to hypoxia is an effective method for neuroprotection that can be achieved by either inhibiting the death effectors or enhancing the survival factors. Transcription coactivator p300 is necessary for hypoxia-induced(More)
In vitro biodegradation of insulin in rabbit and rat lung homogenates was investigated. Insulin can be sequentially metabolized into two primary fragments in rabbit lung homogenate by an aminopeptidase. The amino acid sequences of the fragments were found to be the des-Phe-InsulinB1 (Metabolite I) and des-Phe-Val-InsulinB1-2 (Metabolite II). However, only(More)
Molecular associations of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD) with four steroids (cortisone, hydrocortisone, progesterone, and testosterone) have been studied using phase-solubility and spectroscopic techniques. Phase solubility diagrams could be categorized as B type. The complexes are formed at the stoichiometric ratios of 1:2 (drug:beta-CyD). A mathematical(More)
Four methods for encapsulating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in liposomes were evaluated. Optimum entrapment required emulsifying ATP with the lipids used to form the liposome membrane in a high-speed homogenizer followed by evaporating the organic solvent with vigorous stirring. Under these optimum conditions ATP entrapment was 38.9%; i.e., the dosage form(More)